IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 22, Issue 12, Ver. 2 (December. 2017) PP 24-30 e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845. www.iosrjournals.org DOI: 10.9790/0837-2212022430 www.iosrjournals.org 24 | Page Assess The Relationship Between Selfies And Self Esteem Among University Students Vandana Pandey1, Preeti Bala Mishra2, 1B. A. (H) Applied Psychology, Semester-3, (July 2016- November 2016) 2Asst. Professor, Aibas, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Date of Submission: 17-11-2017 Date of acceptance: 09-12-2017 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I. INTRODUCTION SOCIAL MEDIA Social media refers to a broad range of mobile and internet based services that help the users to develop a public profile within a system, formulate a list of users with whom they share their connections and to join the communities that are online (Danah, 2007). The earliest social networking on the WWW was begun in the form of generalised communities such as the Geocities (1994) and Tripod.com (1995) (Cotris, 2008). These communities focussed on bringing all the people in order interact with each other through personal web pages, chat rooms etc. The compilation of personal information, uploading of pictures, make friends through profiles emerged in 1990‘s (Liverstone, 2008). The first mass social networking site was of the sputh Korean service. New developments in the world of technology have made internet an advanced way for individuals and families to communicate with each other and people all around the world. These social media sites let individuals to create personal profiles, upload photographs, post whatever they are doing at any given time, and send personal or public messages to whomever they want to, Students use social media to post pictures, send messages to friends, update status, tell information about their birthday, their relationship status and even share their location (Tufekci, 2008). In this ―information age,‖ social sites seem to be growing in quality rapidly, especially among young adults and university students, in this research study we are going to focus on the university students (Pempek, et.al, 2008). ADVANTAGES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES Enhancing learning skills- University students use social media to connect with each other on homework and do their group projects (Boyd, 2010). Adolescents find that they can access information related to their health easily and accurately. Excellent and important health topics are available for the individuals to study and learn about the different health issues, such as sexually transmitted diseases, stress related problems and depression (Lenhart et.al, 2010). Social network sites help fulfil the communication needs and the wants. It is a commodious method of communication and it further more provides the ability to remain connected with friends and family, but on the users own rate and time (Urista et.al. 2009). The use of these social networking sites have set different trends in communication as well as had developed new phenomena which tempt people to upload their photographs in these sites, these phenomena are now called ―selfie‖ and ―groufie‖ (Back, 2009). DISADVANTAGES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES CYBERBULLYING- It is the using of social sites to spread false, embarrassing, or hostile information of individuals. It is the most common risk that has been seen in the university students and can cause fundamental psychosocial outcomes that includes anxiety, depression, isolation, and at last suicide (Hinduja, 2010). SEXTING- It is defined as ―sending, receiving, or forwarding sexually explicit messages, pictures, or images via mobile phones, personal computer, or other digital devices. This phenomenon does occur among the teen population; a recent survey revealed that 20% of teens have sent or posted nude or semi nude photographs or videos of themselves. The teens who were indulged in sexting were threatened for child pornography (Gifford, 2009). Assess The Relationship Between Selfies And Self Esteem Among University Students DOI: 10.9790/0837-2212022430 www.iosrjournals.org 25 | Page FACEBOOK DEPRESSION- Researchers have proposed a new phenomenon called ―Facebook depression,‖ defined as depression that develops when preteens and teens spend a great deal of time on social media sites, such as Facebook, and then begin to exhibit classic symptoms of depression ( Davila, 2009). SELF ESTEEM In terms of Psychology self-esteem is the person's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth and a judgment of oneself as well as an attitude towards you (for example, "I am competent", "I am worthy"), as well as emotional states, such as triumph, despair, pride, and shame (Hewitt, 2009). The origin of self esteem as a distinct psychological construct was by a philosopher William James, 1892. He identified the multiple dimensions of the self that is the ‗I‘ and the ‗Me‘. (James,1892). Then in 1960‘s a sociologist Morris Rossenberg defined self esteem as the feeling of self worth and along with developed the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). Some Psychologists considered self esteem as the basic need for human survival, an American Psychologist Abraham Maslow included Self Esteem in his human need hierarchy. Two different forms of esteem was identified by Maslow, first was the need of respect from others in the form of admiration, success, recognition and self respect in the form of self love, aptitude, self worth and skill (Maslow, 1987). Self esteem is important as it shows ourselves that how we view the way we are and also the sense our personal values. Another theory by Carl Rogers also explained Self Esteem he theorized the beginning of people's problems to be that they contemn themselves and considered themselves incapable of being loved and worthless. This is why Rogers believed that the client should be given unconditional acceptance that would help to improve the client's self-esteem ( Joes, 1997). Emerging adulthood has developed into a more contemporary stage of development for individual in their late teens and early twenties. Emerging adulthood, which is described as ages 18-25, is a combination of the late adolescence and early adulthood stages previously identified. It is a time where individuals are trying to find a sense of self worth while exploring possibilities of love, work, and world views (Arnett, 2000). Identity formation occurs during emerging adulthood as young adults are figuring out who they are as a person. Since this is a time of exploration and change, individuals may seek peer feedback to help foster their self- identity. Emerging adults use social media communication methods as they make lifelong decisions for themselves (Arnett, 2000). Social media allows an outlet for identity exploration to occur through peer feedback and strengthening of relationships (Pempek et al., 2008). The purpose of the study was to examine social media use among college students and how it affects communication with others, and college students' self-concept. SELFIE Selfie as slang was introduced in 2002, and from that very time the society used the term selfie several times, and hence it was announced by the Oxford English Dictionary as the word of the year in 2013 (Day, 2013). Selfie is defined as a self-portrait picture, commonly taken with a camera or mobile phone held in the hand or supported by a selfie stick. These are most often shared on the social networking sites such as Instagram, Facebook, Whatsapp and Twitter. They are usually flattering and made to appear casual (Oxford). There is a big history of selfie that how it was evolved. The first ever picture was taken by Robert Cornilius in 1839 an American pioneer in photography, it was a daguerreotype of himself (Robert, 1839). Then came the Kodax Brownie Box Camera in 1900 and it led to the evolution of self portraiture. The Photographic self-portraiture bloomed in the 1970s when low cost instant cameras evolved a new medium of self-expression, by this it led to the amateurs to learn these techniques and the art of photo clicking became a millennium. (Nicks, 2014). The word selfie for the first time in any paper or electronic medium appeared in an Australian internet forum on September 13, 2002. In Karl Kruszelnicki's 'Dr Karl Self-Serve Science Forum', a post by Nathan Hope stated (Oxford, 2013). The term selfie for the first time was discussed by Jim Krause, 2004 but before 2000 when facebook was not there these selfies were common on myspace (Krause, 2004). Selfie addiction is also a problem which is explained in a Daily mail article, which told about Bowman a Model when he attempted suicide, because he was not satisfied with the qualities of his selfies. The Daily Mail believed that selfie addiction is so widespread that it is now recognised as a mental illness (Aldridge & Harden, 2014). Assess The Relationship Between Selfies And Self Esteem Among University Students DOI: 10.9790/0837-2212022430 www.iosrjournals.org 26 | Page II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE A Research done by (Lenhart et.al, 2010) found that 72% of the college students overall have a social media profile on social networking sites, 45% students using these social networking sites at least once a day. Another research done by (Baym et.al, 2004) indicated that 64% of students used to prefer face to face interaction with people, telephone was preferred by 18.4% of people and social contacting was used by 16.1% of people. Women more likely used social networking sites for their relationship maintenance with friends and family, but on the other hand men more likely used the social networking sites to be in touch with new people (Sheldone, 2008). (Quan-Haase et.al, 2010) have found that students made profiles on social networking sites not to be in touch with new people but to maintain existing social ties. According to a report it was found that selfie viewing behaviour may trigger ones jealousy so as to decrease one‘s self esteem (Karla, 2016). Women or girls post selfie because they think that there self esteem is increased because of the comments given to them are positive. One study done by Sorokowska, 2016 found that on the one hand, people with high, stable self-esteem might be eager to share their photos because they are not susceptible to criticism. On the other hand, people with low self- esteem might be even more willing to engage in online self-promotion in order to raise their self-esteem. Google reports in 2014 in a study found that people took approximately 93 million selfies per day on just android models alone (Brandt, 2014). It was found in a study by (Jabari, 2014) that selfies are used to raise awareness among others and the youth and it can be explained by citing an example of the ―Ice Bucket Challenge‖ by the Water deprived residents of Gaza done by the ALS. In a research (Gabriel, 2014) found that people posted selfie online as they thought that they look attractive in their photos, and they want others to perceive them as such and they belive that there self esteem enhances. In order to achieve a social identity an individual will exaggerate the certain characteristic traits that they feel are good, and present a persona of the same that is appealing to a general public (Alloway, 2014) Individuals according to a study by Duggan, 2013 post selfies to social sites as it boosts their self- confidence and overall thoughts. The Pew Research study also gave the same conclusion that 52% of adolescents shared their experiences online after posting selfies that their self esteem has been boosted. Study done by Ende, 2008 found that selfie taking and posting is somewhat linked with self esteem, psychopathologies such as grandiosity, narcissism, and body dysmorphic disorders. III. RATIONALE OF THE STUDY Selfies has emerged few times back so limited researches are done on different age groups of people to know the effect of it on the personality of individuals, but due to the paucity of researches on selfie taking and its effect on the self esteem of individuals and how selfie clicking and posting is related to the self esteem of individuals it was important to do this research. It was done on 40 samples of students belonging to the age group of 18-21. IV. METHODOLOGY OBJECTIVE: Assess the relationship between Selfies and Self Esteem among University Students. HYPOTHESIS: H1: The self esteem of students who like taking selfies a lot will be higher than those who do not like taking selfies. H2: The Self esteem of the female participants will be higher than that of the male participants. H3: Self esteem and the liking towards selfie are correlated with each other. SAMPLES: 40 university students age ranging between18-21 years old were selected from different universities of Lucknow. Out of 40 samples 20 were girls and 20 were boys. The sampling technique used was Random sampling technique. Assess The Relationship Between Selfies And Self Esteem Among University Students DOI: 10.9790/0837-2212022430 www.iosrjournals.org 27 | Page TOOL: 1. RSES (Rosenberg Self Esteem scale), 1965- It is a 10 item scale that measures the self worth of an Individual by measuring the positive and the negative feelings about the self. A 4- point Likert format is followed to answer all the items ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. It was widely used as a self report instrument for evaluating the self esteem of an individual. The 10 items of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale are not equally discriminating and are differentially related to self-esteem. The pattern of functioning of the items was examined with respect to their content, and observations are offered with implications for validating and developing future personality instruments (Rosenberg, 1965). PROCEDURE The study was designed by reviewing the previous researches done on selfies and its effects on individuals and self esteem. The data was collected from the randomly selected sample of Students of different Universities. A healthy rapport was established with the participants and they were asked a open ended question to know whether they like taking selfies or not after knowing this they were asked to fill the Rosenberg self esteem questionnaire. Scoring was done and the mean scores of the samples were calculated, by calculating the standard deviation, the t-test was calculated and the results were interpreted and discussed. V. RESULTS TABLE 1: Males and Females like taking selfies LIKE N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION t VALUE MALE 10 24.8 2.34 3.75** FEMALE 10 28.1 1.33 3.75** **0.01 level of significance 2.88<p=3.75 Table 2: Males and Females Don‘t like taking selfies DON’T LIKE N MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION t VALUE MALE 10 27.3 5.69 0.99 FEMALE 10 29.6 3.65 0.99 NS: Non significant Table 3: Correlation between self esteem and liking in students towards selfie LIKE(Self esteem) CORRELATION VALUE INTERPRETATION r= +0.00291 Positively correlated UNLIKE(Self esteem) r= -0.014 Negatively correlated VI. RESULT & DISCUSSION The act of taking selfie came into light in the 2000‘s (Bennet, 2014). Many researches have been done in order to understand the factors that are behind the reasons for clicking and posting selfies, it was found earlier that the people who are more indulged in taking and posting selfies show attention seeking and narcissitic behaviour (Fox, 2015). Some researchers have concluded that selfies are a positive and healthy form of exploring the self, and selfies can actually boost the self esteem of individuals (Rutledge, 2013). Others social psychologists suggest that there is a positive impact in identity formation, showing and reinforcing a personal image on the growing web‘s social stage. For some, it represents a satisfactory and a more attractive self-imaging and overcoming flaws that might be noticeable to an individual where a person could see him/her self in a photo. The accessibility to gadgets and social media has paved people to indulge in ―selfie‖. This study was based on the act of Selfie taking in young adults of different universities. Sample of 40 students were taken out of which 20 were found to like selfie taking and 20 students do not like taking selfies. Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale was applied on the sample to find the effect of selfie taking on the self esteem of an individual. The score was calculated and the mean and t test values were calculated for 20 samples who like taking selfies and for another group of sample who do not taking selfies. The correlation was also calculated for both the groups of samples and the values were noted down. Assess The Relationship Between Selfies And Self Esteem Among University Students DOI: 10.9790/0837-2212022430 www.iosrjournals.org 28 | Page The interpretation of the t test value and the correlation value is given as follows: Table 1: In the given table 1 the result for 20 sample was given which indicated those Individuals who like taking selfies a lot, out which 10 Males and 10 Females, the mean of males who liked taking selfies was 24.8 and females were 28.1, Standard deviation for males was 2.34 and females was 1.33 and the t test value for the male sample was 3.75** and for female was 3.75** which means that the t value is significant at 0.01 level as the t value is greater than the critical value 2.88. Table2: In the table2 the result for 20 sample was given which indicated those individuals who don‘t like taking selfies a lot, out of which 10 males and10 females, the mean of males who don‘t like taking selfies was 27.3 and females was 29.6 , the standard deviation for males was 5.69 and females was 3.65 and the ttest value that came out to be was 0.99 for both the variables which means that the t value is non significant at either of the significance level as the t value is smaller than the critical value. Table3: in table3 correlation between the student‘s likings towards selfie taking and the Self esteem was calculated. The 20 sample of students who liked taking selfies gave a positive correlation of r= 0.00291 which means that as more the individuals like taking selfies and posting them the more there self esteem will increase. In another group the individuals who do not like taking selfies gave a negative correlation with self esteem r= - 0.014 which means that the more the students wont like taking selfies there self esteem will decrease. VII. CONCLUSION This research was done to find the relation between the liking of Individuals towards selfies and the self esteem. Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale was applied on the sample of 20 people who like taking selfie and 20 people who do not like taking selfies and the result came out to be significant at 0.01 level as the t value for people who like taking selfies was 3.75, it was greater than 2.88 this means that there is 99% chance that if the study is again conducted the results will again occur. 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