Assessment of the self-esteem of the identified child labour

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Summary of Assessment of the self-esteem of the identified child labour

~ 75 ~ International Journal of Home Science 2017; 3(2): 75-79 ISSN: 2395-7476 IJHS 2017; 3(2): 75-79 © 2017 IJHS Received: 03-03-2017 Accepted: 04-04-2017 Priya Sharma Department of Human Development and Family Studies, School for Home Sciences Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedker University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India UV Kiran Department of Human Development and Family Studies, School for Home Sciences Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedker University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Correspondence Priya Sharma Department of Human Development and Family Studies, School for Home Sciences Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedker University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Assessment of the self-esteem of the identified child labour Priya Sharma and UV Kiran Abstract Child workers suffering from different psychological problems due to the stress at tender age and self- esteem among children involved in labor activities considerably will be different due to various issues related to work and other factors in comparison to others of the same age group. Child labor is a concept encompassing physiology and emotional stages of transition from childhood and adulthood, with the dramatic changes and development. Self-esteem is the term described as the judgment that we make about our own worth and the feelings that are associated with that judgment. The present study was conducted with an objective to determine the self –esteem among the child labor. The study was conducted on incidental sample 90 children (30 hotel industries and 30 automobile industries and 30 school going children). Subjects were administered State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES) developed of Todd F. Heatherton (1991). The results of the study revealed that the level of the self-esteem in hotel industries is high whereas the level of automobile industries is low. Keywords: child labor and self -Esteem, Psychological problem 1. Introduction Self-esteem is a favorable opinion of oneself. Self-esteem can be increased by achieving greater successes and maintained by avoiding failures, but it can also be increased by adopting less ambitious goals: ‘to give up pretensions is as blessed a relief as to get them gratified’ (James, et al 1890) [7]. James’s formula also made the important prediction that self-esteem cannot be predicted purely from the objective level of success a person achieves. The concept of self-improvement has undergone dramatic change since 1911, when Ambrose Bierce mockingly defined self-esteem as "an erroneous appraisement." Good and bad character is now known as "personality differences." Rights have replaced responsibilities. The research on egocentrism and ethnocentrism that informed discussion of human growth and development in the mid-twentieth century is ignored; indeed, the terms themselves are considered politically incorrect. A revolution has taken place in the vocabulary of self. Words that imply responsibility or accountability—self-criticism, self-denial, self-discipline, self-control, self- effacement, self-mastery, self-reproach, and self-sacrifice—are no longer in fashion. The language most in favor is that which exalts the self — self-expression, self-assertion, self- indulgence, self-realization, self-approval, self-acceptance, self-love, and the ubiquitous self- esteem (Ruggiero, 2000) [10]. Based on the assumption that high self-esteem was key to success, many American groups created programs to increase the self-esteem of students. The expectations of these programs were that grades would increase, conflicts would decrease, and happy, successful lives would follow. Until the 1990s, however, little peer-reviewed and controlled research was done on the relationship between self-esteem and success. Peer- reviewed research undertaken since then has not validated previous assumptions. Later research indicated that inflating students' self-esteem has no positive effect on grades, and one study even showed that inflating self-esteem by itself can actually decrease grades (Baumeister, 2005) [4]. High self-esteem has been shown to correlate highly with self- reported happiness. However, it is not clear which, if either necessarily leads to the other. The problem is, then, not child labor itself, but the conditions under which it operates. Child labor is, generally speaking, work by children that harms them or exploits them in some way (physically, mentally, morally, or by blocking their access to education).but: There is no universally accepted definition of child labor. ~ 76 ~ International Journal of Home Science Varying definitions of the term are used by international organizations, non-governmental organizations, trade unions and other interest groups. Writers and speakers don’t always specify what definition they are using, and that often leads to confusion. Not all work is bad for children. Some social scientists point out that some kinds of work may be completely unobjectionable - except if the work is exploiting the child. For instance, a child who delivers newspapers before school might actually benefit from learning how to work, gaining responsibility, and a bit of money. But what if the child is not paid? Then he or she is being exploited. As UNICEF’s 1997 State of the World’s Children Report puts it, "Children’s work needs to be seen as happening along a continuum, with destructive or exploitative work at one end and beneficial work - promoting or enhancing children’s development without interfering with their schooling, recreation and rest - at the other Objective: a keeping in view, the impact of work and its outcome, the present study he impact has been taken up to determine the self esteem of the child labour.. Review of Litlature The present chapter deals with the review of relevant literature on the topic of research Self -esteem of child labor in the following sections-personality development is the development of the organized pattern of behaviors and attitudes that makes a person distinctive. In their study on “Personality patterns of higher secondary boys across different demographics group” made a comparative study among SC, ST and non-background boys in higher secondary school of Tajpur district representing both rural and urban area one hundred and fifty each from sc and ST category and 300 students from anon background falling to 600 samples was selected was used to assess the personality high school personality questionnaire devised by Cottrell prepared by Kapoor Srivastava. Has conducted a study on “Agricultural slum among school children in rural assist Egypt”. The main objective of study was to determine the cases of agricultural child labour in koom village the cross sectional study was conducted on 630 randomly selected student enrolled in primary and prepare at school aged from 6-12 data were collected by using structured personal interview an through measures height weight and body mass index were measured investigation including urine and stool were done to detail infection in these children. Urine samples were collected examined microscopically. The result showed that working many health hazards injuries animal bites and high temperature and also concluded that phenomenon of student labour is common in rural koom village in the field of agriculture children work as cheep labor because their parents are poor and do not earn enough to support their family thus the problem of child labor will persist and exposes the children to many health hazard and risk. April, “Child labor among school children in urban and rural areas” of Pondicherry made the comparative study the prevalence of child labour among school children in rural and urban areas of Pondicherry, and the factors related to child labour like the reasons for working problems faced by the child workplace conditions etc. in the study it was observed that more children from families from the lower socioeconomic stratum (example class v of the modified Kippurs way scare) went to work. Nit in et al. in their study in Nagpur found that a lower socioeconomic status of the family was significantly associated with child laborers. The present study showed that irrespective of whether the children came from families in poverty or otherwise, in the rural areas the children went to work. This may also because the quantification of the income of the parents in the rural areas is difficult and therefore it appears that regardless of the total household income the child has to engage in some work. The present study revealed that in both the rural and urban areas working children spent less time studying as compared to their nonworking counterparts nivethida et al. in their study from the same urban area found that half of the children felt that their work affected their study. Has conducted “A study on factors in the sociocultural environment of child labor.” A study in small scale leather goods industry in Calcutta. This was conducted on 40 working and 40 nonworking children aged between (7-14). Who lived in the same slum areas and were of the same age range and s social group. Personal interview were carried in a prepared schedule. A clinical examination was also made on each them and results were compared between working children and control group of the same number of nonworking children. It was found that the foremost cause of the taking up employment by the children was poverty, deprivation of education and lowering of aspiration. BHAT (2009), has undertaken “A study among child labor in the handicrafts industry in kasmir”, a sociological study. The study was conducted on 100 respondent s in village and slum areas of Kasmir issues in Bongladesh. About 30 of them are multi-country data surveys of international or national agencies like the various surveys of the international labour organization and the annual surveys of the United States department of labour a finding on the worst form of child labour. Found that “ The trend and incident of child labour has been increasing in Bangladesh even though child labour is on a declining trend in other south Asian countries, which she explain with the irrelevance or inadequacy of existing child labour lows in Bangladesh. This study suggests that a combination of policies would be appropriate for reducing child labor, which includes employment generation schemes that lead to economic prosperity for the household, compulsory schooling for children, school enrolment subsidy improving school infrastructure. many aspects are covered in this study such as family, economic status, parental perception education, gender discrimination and implantation relation of production cultural acceptance and issues of health and existing rules and regulating etc. they also examined the existing rules and regulation and pin painted the loopholes in the lows which the employers exploit while engaging children in their business unit. Interview technique observation and collateral contacts were carried out for data collection. As stated in, there has, recently been renewed interest in this topic among economists which has led to a series of theoretical studies with the aim of better understanding The causes and consequences of child labor and to help guide appropriate policy responses. There are now close to 100 publications that address child labour. Aim at investigating the factors that influence the health complications of the child labors by collecting primary data from same selected areas of rangpur District, Bangladesh. Their logistic regression analysis showed that working hour per day, place of work and age at the time of entrance to work appeared to be the most significant factors in determining the likelihood of facing health complications. They find that,  An increase in working hours increasing the likelihood of ~ 77 ~ International Journal of Home Science health complications.  Children working in more hazardous sectors face more health problems that those working in comparatively less hazardous sectors. Children that enter inter into work at an early age face more health complication. 1 more recent case studies are reported by The absence of systematic data collection on the incidence of child labor obviously affects the amount of research done on the determinants of child labor. Almost all work done is based on “case studies covering a sub national area, often one or a few villages, at best a province or region”. Much of the analysis dates back to the period 1978-85, perhaps motivated by the United Nations' declaration of 1979 as the Year of the Child. “The dearth of direct data on child labor has led many researchers to focus on the determinants of school attendance”. As argued earlier, one cannot consider this as the “inverse” of child labor, but nevertheless this literature is important because one can certainly make the argument that whatever promotes school attendance is likely to deter child labor. Moreover, empirically there is a negative correlation between child labor and hours dedicated to schooling). In rural areas, “The relationship between fertility, household size, and child labor depends also on the amount of land holdings”. The evidence has indicated that children in landless and marginal farm households generally engage in wage labor while those in households with larger farms engage in agricultural work. The tendency to engage in child labor increases with farm size, because the marginal contribution of children increases (they are a complementary input to land). This tendency reverses though where larger farm households cease to operate their own lands but rather rent them out). In other words, both the size of the farm and the mode of operation will influence the effect of fertility and household size on child labor. Methodology Research design: Research design is a coherent plan in conducting research, which deals with the structure and strategy of investigation so conceived to obtain answer to research questions. The research design followed in the present study is exploratory research design in which cross sectional method was adapted. Locale of the study: The urban areas of Lucknow were selected purposively to conduct the study as it is the capital city. Some school existing in Lucknow were identified and were included as sample in the study. A part from this, the researcher’s familiarity with the area made the researcher as to select Lucknow as the locale of the study. Sampling Procedure: For selection of the respondents, purposive random sampling technique was adopted. Sample was drawn from a population size of ninety using simple random sampling technique. A total of ninety sample was selected from Lucknow district. The total sample was divided into two groups experimental and control group. A sample of sixty children was selected from hotel industries and automobile industries and a sample of thirty school going children were randomly selected from school, self-esteem scale developed by state self-esteem scale was used to measure the self esteem among child labour. Description of Measure A 20-items scale that measures a participant’s self-esteem at a given point in time. The 20 items are subdivided into 3 components of self-esteem: performance self-esteem, social self-esteem, and appearance self-esteem. All items are answered using a 5-point scale (1= not at all, 2= a Little bit, 3= somewhat, 4= very much, 5= extremely). Result 1. Comparison of self –esteem among child labor across Type of work S.N. Type of work Level of self –esteem Low Moderate High Total (N=60) 1 Hotel industries(N=30) 5(38.5) 22(32.4) 3(50.0) 30(34.5) 2 Automobile industries (N=30) 0(46.2) 6(32.4) 24(0.0) 30(32.2) total 5 28 27 60 χ2 15.12 p 0.01 It is quite evident from the table that the level of the self – esteem in Hotel industries is high level (50.0) where as the level of Automobile industries is low. Emphasized in work related risks were observed, workplace that could potentially have adverse effect on health. These include chemicals, ergonomics and physical risks (lighting, heat, noise, and air- conditioning) in all work place. No attempts to manage these risks were being carried out in this work place. Chemical with toxic effects can results in health problem in the respiratory system. Using sharp tools and other factors (electrical tools, slipper and surfaces) may lead to accidents. Cadas reported the rate of these tools as 39.5 % and accident frequency as 26.9%. Eyes, nose, throat, musculoskeletal system problem and headache were very common in child labour. This rate was also found high (67%) in the study by. The result clearly indicates that the self esteem among child labour working in automobile industries is high in compassion to hotel industries. This may be due to the type of work being caused out by the children working in hotels. 2. Comparison of self –esteem among child labor across age Age of respondent Low (30) Moderate (30) High (30) Total (90) 9-10 5(38.5) 11(16.2) 1(16.7) 20(19.5) 11-12 2(15.4) 26(38.2) 2(33.3) 30(34.5) 13-14 6(46.2) 31(45.6) 3(50.0) 40(46.0) χ2 = 4.479 p = 0.345 ~ 78 ~ International Journal of Home Science From the above table it can be estimated that the level of self- esteem in the different group of children’s age was found as high (50%) in age group of 13-14 whereas age group of (11- 12) is low (15.4%).In the Basu and Van model, child labour is effectively undefined. The child is either a child labourer or the child is not. The modelling assumption is that a child participates in child labour to help the family meet their subsistence needs and stops when the family's adult only earnings are sufficiently high so that subsistence is met without the child's contribution. This approach to child labour appears in other studies by Basu (including Basu 1999) [3] who employ a similar approach in considering child participation in exploitative work. 3. Comparison of self –esteem among child labor across gender Gender Low moderate High Total Boy 9(69.2) 52(76.5) 5(83.3) 66(75.9) Girl 4(30.8) 16(23.5) 1(16.7) 24(24.1) Χ2 = 0.509 P = 0.775 From the above table it can be concluded that the level of self- esteem in children (boys) is high (83.3). on the other hand, female children were found to be low (30.8). 4. Comparison of self –esteem among child labor across Education Education Low (30) Moderate (3m0) High (30) School going 46.2 48.5 50.0 Non school going 53.8 51.5 50.0 X2 = 0.032 P = 0.984 From the above table it can be demonstrated that the level of self –esteem in school going children is high (50%) whereas non-school going children is low (53.8%). Discussion International studies may be carried out especially for a child working as labour which may include self- esteem in their life is very low and this may be due to the reason that the child labor work in very strenuous condition at such tender age. From the findings of above study it can be concluded that child labour is harmful for children’s development. Children who involve in work have poor educational and socio- economic status. The main cause of taking up employment is poverty and low educational attainment of children and parents pressure. ~ 79 ~ International Journal of Home Science Conclusion the status of self-esteem of child labor has performed the level of self -esteem in the different groups of children among age, gender, and education. No significant difference in the level of self-esteem among child labours because of their working condition, work pressure and work type, children who work in hotel industries because they do work in very sun light and do hard works, like lifting heavy loads, risk of shock and they use hard material. Child labour a known evil has to be eradicated to protect the childhood of the children. As poor economic status of the family is found to be the main reason for sending the children to work, government has to make certain reforms to support families economically. So parents are encouraged to send their children to school and relieve them from heavy work burden. 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