Classroom Time Management in Basic Level School - IISTE

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Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.9, No.28, 2018 19 Classroom Time Management in Basic Level School Prem Prasad Sigdel Tri-Chandra College, Department of English Abstract Teaching is a challenging job these days due to negligence of teacher about classroom time management. Classroom time is much important due to its limited nature and the privy part of the teaching learning process. A workshop has been conducted to manage classroom time where participants have presented their ideas and experiences in a systematic order. The limited time has unlimited problems to be addressed which has been done successfully. Two dozen teachers have been participated who have covered pre-primary to the basic level teachers. Four groups have been formed and four different topics have been given dividing the limited classroom time for sound management. Excellent presentation has been made by the participants which is helpful for the novice, pre-service, and professional teachers. Keywords: time management, classroom management, quality education, effective and efficient teacher. Background of the Study The first and foremost ingredient of quality education is teacher whose role has determined the processes of classroom and the learning achievement of students (OECD, 2016). Teaching is a challenging job as innovations and alternatives have been going on these days. They need to learn high-quality teaching to meet the goal of education. However, teachers have faced lots of challenges while managing classrooms due to lack of skills and classroom techniques. They aren’t able to manage classrooms unless they haven’t been given proper training and guidance from the administration. Teaching is a process of man-making business so it has various ups and downs, pros and cons, and so on. Teaching will have got accident making students redundant if teachers are ineffective. To be an effective teacher one needs specific pedagogical techniques and classroom management styles to handle classroom excellently. Many researchers have proved that most of the teachers have lacked efficient skills and motivation to make class effectual. Regular and repeated care to the students and interaction between teachers and students are necessary factors in student centered teaching methods. Understanding among students and teachers could solve various problems to generate affirmative environment of reading. The expectation of parents and the investment in education can be gained only when children learn effectively. Teaching ought to be output oriented which can be done only in well managed classroom with effective teachers. The challenges of teaching are to make students learn 3Rs like reading, writing and arithmetic; it has been expanded to 4Cs: communicators, creators, critical thinkers, and collaborators (Education Development Trust, 2016). Unless students can't get basic things in education like 3Rs, other approaches of education would also be failed. Student centered teaching only can improve the learning achievement of students as opposed to theoretical construct. Teacher education has also put value in it which should be classroom-based approach rather than ideal view of teaching. The purpose of this workshop is to make teachers aware about the fundamental rule to be followed in the classroom. Teachers are like keys to open the door of future of the students so they have been taken as coach, cheerleader, and champion of excellence unlike in the past. They should be preventive in classroom management and in dealing with students rather than reactive (Deryakulu & Akbaba-Altun, 2014). Researches show positive relationship between teacher preparation and student performance in the classroom. Classroom is the first and heart for learning that needs system, full of resources, excellent and affectionate teacher and so on. Teacher is the nuclear of such element to make it compound. The role of teacher has to be redefined these days to make students know the course content; then to enhance the concept of behavioral education. Classroom practices have concentrated on the activities of teachers and their skills. Teachers have often got blamed when they enter into the classroom with empty mind and hand. Student would also judge teachers of skills and talent they would perform in the classroom. Classroom has limited time in which teachers and students should do unlimited activities at this time. They need to manage 40 to 50 minutes time in the classroom so that the future of students will have been determined. Teachers must have struggled for such management as per the demand of students and guardians (Matherne, n.d). Teachers need to go to classroom with preparation so that they can make the class much livelier. They need to overcome time constrain so that they can get victory over it. Moreover crowd of students would have been managed if teacher had been able to deliver the message on time systematically. They need to pay attention of all students who have seated in the classroom. However, the professional development part of the teachers is much inconsistent and highly theoretical. Training should be headed to make them practice the classroom activities sitting beside the students as facilitator when needed rather than the man of idealism (The Honor Level System, 2012). Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.9, No.28, 2018 20 The tripartite relation among teachers, students and parents would be strengthened if teacher has played a vital role in the classroom. It needs more study, practice, preparation before, during and post-class activities. All these activities should be managed according to the need and constrain of time so that the class is more effective. They need to maintain their discipline in the class hours with their preventive techniques so the students would follow it duly. The role of teachers should have changed from preacher to the facilitator; thus they would be able to deliver the message properly. To reckon students and their problems, teachers have to be surmised with social, personal and cognitive challenges of students (C. U., 2012) Only the motivated and skillful teachers could draw the attention of students as we have generally considered teaching as techniques rather than talent. Teacher has thus played a central role in the learning process of students. Classroom management is more than maintaining discipline of students or it goes beyond classroom. An effective teacher can only manage classroom in a tactful way. To present an example of a successful classroom, a triumphant teacher leader is a must. It's difficult to be a successful teacher if one can't manage classroom well. It needs special teaching techniques so that they can control the whole class and deliver knowledge whatever they like and the need of students has also been addressed. Teachers’ classroom management practices have a significant, positive effect on decreasing problem in behaviors of students. Students must “develop thinking skills, content knowledge, social, and emotional competencies” to pursue their future career and to solve the complexities of life or to balance the work environment (Teemuangsai & Meesook, 2017). It’s the responsibility of teachers to make students learn in and outside the classroom together from class. It indicates a central administrative body of the whole teaching learning process. Classroom management is a notoriously difficult task if teachers are ineffective (C.U., 2012). Teachers need to do personal interactions with the students to make them attracted towards reading processes. It needs effective time management in the classroom. A limited time of classroom is such an important smell that spreads to other aspects of life. From that limited time teachers have to use unlimited resources to deliver messages to the students. It needs superb management from teacher's side which can be helped by training, workshop and seminars and so on. One day workshop has been organized to work out for excellent time management by teachers. The workshop has been divided into four parts and four groups have been assigned to work out on different aspects of classroom time management. The next topic is going to discuss about the literatures of effective classroom management. Overview of Literature Teaching is a challenging job at present context because traditional tools and techniques can’t work these days. Students have differing concept according to their context which doesn’t address the problems of these days unlike in the past. There is an abrupt change in teaching and learning process towards the last of 20th century as it has been transferred to students centered approach from teacher centered milieu. So teaching strategies has positive link with students’ learning in contrast of didactic teaching. Even more teaching becomes multidimensional as it depends on varieties of students from different cultures and social backgrounds (OECD, 2016). We can’t stick to any such standard rules or techniques so the management of classroom is much challenging these days. Education systems are often weakly connected to learning goals though we need to energize teaching learning process in a proper way. It becomes a challenging factor for teachers to make it a demand of society and nation at present. According to a study an experienced teacher can advance 1.5 grade levels in comparison to the inexperienced teacher which is just 0.5 grade levels (The World Bank, 2018). It indicates the need of excellent teachers full of techniques, skills and knowledge of classroom time management. Teachers need to involve students in active learning process in contrast to traditional lecture methods. We need to energize students instead of teachers where teachers can work as facilitator instead of lecturer (Prince, 2004). There is a need of perfect transformative teacher who could contribute for value-based learning in the classroom. Only an honest, cooperative, and tactful teacher could promote “values-based learning, reinforce the motivation and capacity of students” (UNESCO, 2018, p. 98). Classroom management should have been directed to provide students more chances to gain multidimensional knowledge along with the need of place, time, social context and need , students' need, and so on. Promotion of learning activities needs a good relation of teachers with students and their parents as parents are the investors and prime level stakeholders. Different studies have also proved that parents have more responsibilities than school as they have spent 1/3 of time at school and 2/3 at home. The role of house has been almost forgotten these days as students are out of control. The effort of teacher only can do nothing without the help of parents. Students these days have been given such adjectives as “disenchanted, disaffected, disaffiliated, disturbed and disruptive” (Dunbar, 2004, p. 1). It needs joint effort of school, teacher and parents to make them cooperative, tolerable, affectionate and so on. Teachers have to take responsibility all these misconducts towards positive way so that the school environment would be positive. These inappropriate behaviors of students need preventive cure rather than reactive one. We can change the behavior of students through “best practices” in the Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.9, No.28, 2018 21 school whereas the behavior of staff can be changed through "systems” (Dunbar, 2004). Dunbar (2004) pointed teacher leaders as authoritarian, authoritative, indifferent, and laissez-faire are in practice in the schools. Teacher need to be the laissez faire according to the demand of time. Teacher needs to be amicable so that the students do have interest coming to school and follow their suggestions. A research proved that an effective teacher can promote students’ learning achievement at the 50th percentile whereas good schools environment only can enhance students’ achievement with 37th percentile. Similarly, an ineffective school and teacher will increase student’s achievement by the 3rd percentile (Korpershoek, et. al., 2014). We can internalize the importance of teacher who can be a single Jupiter to enhance the learning achievement of the students in spite of school and home environment. Teachers and their qualities need to be praised and promoted to create amicable learning environment in the school. Learning skills in the 21st century navigates from “Three Rs” to “Four Cs” to increase the multidimensional aspects of students as mentioned by Teemuangsai and Meesook (2017). For the promotion of school and learning environment, school leaders have also important role. Only an effective, efficient, visionary, courageous leader can move ahead with certain mission setting direction and creating constructive school culture. Staff motivation, supportive learning environment, arrangement of physical infrastructure, social relations are other supportive aspects of running school in a positive direction. It's challenging to create positive learning environment in the classroom as it has been a communal effort from all stakeholders. Healthy environment, management of adequate educational materials, engagement of students in different activities can help for meaningful academic achievement. We can assign students for “school maintenance duties (e.g., wiping the board daily), teachers can help create a collective responsibility for students to care for the school and their peers” (Hanover Research, 2017, p. 29). Moreover, we can also involve parents and society to maintain school climate which makes them responsible and dutiful. Teachers can assign different duties to students dividing them into different groups so that they would be self-disciplined. It indicates different multidimensional teaching techniques to be learnt by the teacher as they are the executive leader of the classroom. Finally, good teachers are all rounder and they can engage students in the classroom, hallways, playground, and in every other corner of the school and every time of the year (Deryakulu & Akbaba-Altun, 2014). In this way, teachers’ classroom time management strategies and students’ subject specific interest are positively related for the promotion of academic environment in the school. The subsequent topic would mention the methodology followed in the workshop. Methodology A workshop has been organized of two dozen teachers with the aim to promote professionalism in teaching, effective classroom time management and to increase the self-confidence of the teachers. Such programs have been organized after each terminal examination which happened in three months each or four times a year. They have been teaching from pre-primary to class 10. Among them three of them are Master's Degree holder, 6 of them are bachelor's degree holders and rest of them have completed class twelve and all of them have been studying bachelor's level. Their age varies from early 20s to the early forties. As a whole they are energetic teachers who seek professionalism in teaching which has been one of the neglected professions in Nepal. Before workshop two of the teachers, Principal and Assistant Principal have sat for three hours. They have done brainstorming to categorize the processes of the workshop. They have written different points and divided into distinct thematic genres. Group A has been given to work on pre-preparation activities; group B has been given entering and warm up activities; group C has been given board use, class beginning and during class activities; and group D has been assigned as wrap up activities. Four groups have been formed from junior to senior classes so that different styles of teaching and learning processes have been exchanged. Teachers' groups have been formed purposively to include all the concepts from junior to senior level. The process has been divided into four segments and raffling has been done for the choice of the topic. They have been put separately and given a spiral diary, pens, pencils, cardboard, and other required materials. Before the starting of the session, they have been given 30 minutes' professional development training of teachers according to the context of Nepal and the world. Mostly the importance of soft skills have been delivered along with the latest teaching philosophies like transcendental teaching, project-based learning, inquiry-based learning and STEAM education. The main purpose of the workshop is to make teachers practice the behavioral approach in teaching. They would develop their professionalism and to make classroom more effective. They wrote in important points after brainstorming in their spiral diary. Teachers have made the presentation papers more stylish and attractive as they can. One of the groups has written in Nepali language, a native language, and other groups have used English language, a second language. The process has been concentrated on the utilization of classroom hours effectively, efficiently, and tactfully. They have prepared their presentation with artistic style using different colors of markers and making pictures or figures in the chart paper. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.9, No.28, 2018 22 Success stories have been told when the writing process has been finished. One of the teachers from each group shared success stories in their teaching career. It has made others more inquisitive and makes them more curious about the story of success. Some of the points or the processes have been repeated by the groups as it has been assigned to divide the classroom of 40 minutes into various parts. The repeated points or processes have been dropped to make the report more concise and effective. The teachers have been instructed if they have been in confusion by the facilitators. They could have discussed with the colleagues and facilitators as well. Maximum output has been determined by the process to make it more effective and efficient. Towards the last of the workshop all the groups have presented their matters hanging at the front of the hall. One of the group have to comment another which has been given serially as group A gets comment from Group B and so on. The following topic will present the data in detail. Data Discussion Group A was pre-entry group which has divided pre-primary activities and basic level activities in their work plan into five parts. In pre-primary activities, they have included their daily activities like class beginning, subject entry, games, tiffin (lunch) time, and concluding class. They have grade system in their class and their daily activities have been concentrated on observation of personal hygiene, warm up exercise and Morning Prayer. Then they make circle and get students to know about time, day, and weather in the form of rhyme. The third process is to remind students about previous class. They make students play games related to the lesson and other self-help games. The fourth schedule is to let students play outside, library visit, and reciting extra interesting stories. Finally they make students take rest and then sing farewell song for the day before leaving. For basic level, teachers would prepare lesson plan; make subject matter ready; prepare questions for evaluation; make a list of possible inquisitions by students; separate topics for homework and class work; manage chart paper, marker, duster, pen, book and so on; prepare for yoga; maintain their dress; drink water and go toilet. They develop positive thinking and make smiley faces before entering into classroom. Group B has been assigned as entering and warm up duty to prepare the presentation. They haven't divided pre-primary and basic level because classroom activities are almost same here. They have made the presentation artistically dividing into three parts. The first part has included: taking lesson plan and educational materials; make smiley face and positive attitude. They also write day, date and subject on the white board. The second task has included observation of the faces of all the students. Then they ask students to make their body straight for a short yoga program. Students are suggested not to touch anything, no gossiping, no yawing, closing their eyes, and remember their gods and parents and to pursue meditation. The third part mentioned as revision of previous lesson and telling them what they are going to learn that day. They would also ask students to take out necessary materials like pen, copy, book and so on. Teachers would check them all properly. Group C has been given the topic of board use, class beginning and during class activities. They have also made it artistic with arrows and box. The first part is about the board use. They have made it in the style of white board. Teachers can write important points; difficult words; mathematics formulae. Sometimes teachers can ask students solve problems on board as well. They would assign class work, homework and drawing on board. The second part includes: class beginning and during class activities like review of previous lesson, explaining lesson by students themselves; assigning class work; cross questioning; and using materials for presentation. Similarly, they suggest using lecture methods; cross questioning; let students to read the lesson themselves. The third arrow is the summary of the class in which they have included reading, writing, listening, explaining, interaction and interpretation as a whole. Group D has been scheduled to work on wrap-up class. They have presented it in a tree form with lake and meadow at its base and an abstract picture of a woman. The points included as: asking students whether they have understood or not; asking questions related to the lesson; and asking question about other related topics. They suggest to do experiment and demonstration; giving more focus on the implantation of soft skills; delivering notice for next class or performance; and asking students to do homework properly for the next day. They would even ask them to carry necessary materials, like educational and other stationery tools for next class. Finally they would check students' diary. If it is the last class of the day, they will check personal hygiene of the students. Last but not the least they would give a big smile to students and ask them to come school tomorrow. Data Analysis "A poor teacher tells, an average explains and a good teacher demonstrates" is a popular saying in teaching learning process. Classroom is the place to build future of students with responsible and dutiful teachers. It means they must have utilized whole time in the classroom with gainful activities. If classroom is effective, other matters have been overshadowed so that class room is focused mostly in this workshop. Classroom management is an important aspect to increase the learning achievement of students. Today's students have different expectations than in the past so teachers should be able to deliver something different than in the past. Teacher is the main role model in this aspect so one can guide students not only in school but out of school as well Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.9, No.28, 2018 23 (Deryakulu & Akbaba-Altun, 2014). Students need more engagement than teachers so we call teacher as facilitator rather than the indifferent leader of the classroom. All the participants have agreed in such issues and they would be ready to promote students learning and utilizing classroom time all in all. Teachers agree to manage class from pre-entry preparation to the wrap-up class. Though the workshop seems limited; however it takes a cyclical order from pre-entry to the wrap-up class. The time actually wheels round all these aspects. Students can learn themselves however they have needed a good guidance in their life (Hanover Research, 2017). The concept of inquiry-based learning can happen if teacher has been active in the classroom which has been accepted by the participants. They would ask questions to the students and vice-versa. Classroom is the prime place to do everything and teacher is the leader of such place. They need to prepare alot before going to classroom which is an important philosophy of classroom management. Teachers should perform well in the classroom understanding the interest of the students and their demand. They need to take class with effective means and tools establishing rules made from students rather than transitory rules. It has promoted preventive system of discipline rather than reactive (Dunbar, 2004). Utilization of classroom time is one of the aspects of quality teaching which has been planned successfully by the teacher in the workshop. The motto of workshop is to make classroom more effective rather than extending the knowledge of different ‘isms’ or ‘philosophies’. It is a constructive model of training where teachers have taken part themselves and they have been illuminated themselves. Such realization can be seen at the end of the workshop along with the sharing of success stories. All of the groups have planned time before entering the class to the last of the classroom activities. They involve in all the activities and present the list of them to be done in classroom which has certainly made them aware about their duties and responsibilities. Teacher is a pioneer leader and students have followed their styles and techniques. They have mentioned the dress of teacher, materials for teaching, and smiley face which are the matters of attraction of the children (Prince, 2004). It makes them remind the obligation of an effective and dutiful teacher before going to classroom. Teacher has to perform better with fresh mind and ideas so that the impression in students would be encouraging. Entering into the classroom has got more meaning as it has been guided by the mood of students and teachers. If the teacher is unprepared his/her face is dismayed and they can’t perform well. Students would certainly read their face and guess how teachers would have performed in the classroom. So their entry point and the activities what they have done at the beginning of the classroom are more valuable. It has also been suggested to spend some days in the management of classroom rather than proceeding the course (Education Development Trust, 2016). The popular yoga program has been mentioned in the presentation which has put much value on students achievement according to an Australian experience (Ditrich, 2017). Students position, posture, and teacher's observation to all the students is necessary to make classroom effective. Writing day, date on the board is essential to implant the concept of day and date so that they can be up-to-date carrying their day to day responsibilities. Knowledge is meant an iteration these days so the participants have mentioned of the revision of previous class and synopsis of the lesson of that day. These are the essential elements of an effective and dutiful teacher rather than the example of indifferent teacher. The main task of the classroom can happen with the use of board, class beginning and during-class activities. The participants have revealed that they would write difficult words and definitions on the board and convey message to the students. Teachers would agree to involve students to explain lesson themselves. It’s a good example of students' involvement in learning. They have also encouraged students to ask questions or teachers themselves ask questions to students. Such cross-questioning would make students more interactive. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.9, No.28, 2018 24 They would be clear about the lesson and the effort of teacher is praiseworthy that instigates inquiry-based learning in the classroom (Townsley, 2017). Class is a limited time or teachers should have managed 40 to 50 minutes time for reading, writing, listening, interaction, interpreting and so on. All these activities have been important while dealing with students to make them comprehensible about the lesson. Similarly demonstration and experiment have also been endorsed that promote project-based learning in the classroom. Certainly they would have taken students for extra- activities to the field when they have such techniques. The last time of a class of 40 to 50 minutes is more valuable for the children. Teacher should be more economic and efficient to manage such time duly. The participants have encouraged asking questions related to the lesson. Students have been assigned homework and let them encourage doing the task properly. They have also given suggestions to prepare for next lesson. It’s one of the indicators of quality education which is sought by the stakeholders. It's important to inform students about the materials what they have brought at the morning time and to take it back to home at evening time. It’s the duty of teacher to make them aware of all the activities. The last word of 'big smile' is more meaningful in this sense. Most of the students don't like to come to school if the behavior of the teacher is rude. So the participants have agreed to make students attractive regarding it. The ideas and views expressed in the workshop are quite meaningful as it has connection with the future of sensitive children. They have been practicing along with the school leaders like principal and assistant-principal. The objectives which have been mentioned at the beginning of the methodology have been achieved successfully. Its contribution is much more interesting and full of responsibilities because they have to perform even better in the classroom. An efficient management of the classroom is more challenging and necessary task of the teacher. It has contributed to change the passive class into live and active. Students would be helped by the facilitator and they would have ample chance to have cross-questioning in the classroom according to their interest. The professionalism in teaching profession can have promoted by such workshop and encourage teachers to practice laissez-faire leadership in classroom (Dunbar, 2004). An indifferent, authoritative, and authoritarian teacher is unaware about the achievement of students which has been challenged by the workshop. Surely this will help to improve teachers and teaching quality. Conclusion The process of teaching has been becoming much complex job due to time constrain. Or it becomes multidimensional according to social, cultural, and traditional context. It has multiple problems and teachers should be able to find solutions of all these problems. Among them classroom time management as per the limited moment is much challenging. The crux of teaching has started from the classroom so it needs efficient management with effective teacher. Teacher is the privy person to manage such time to have maximum output. This workshop would be useful to those teachers who want to manage their classroom well. Forty to fifty minutes time has been divided into four parts and the preparation has been done to make classroom sound and updated. The novice and pre service as well as those who want to seek their career in teaching can get much benefit from this article. Teaching is a challenging process which can be solved along with the experiences shared in this workshop. Effective teaching needs in depth study of each part; taking the concept classroom time management has been discussed and etched in this article. The superficial understanding of the profound matter has been dug out in this workshop. It can be done only if teachers can know about the micromanagement of their class. The outcome of the school can be measured through this approach. It tries to transfer the traditional teaching methods to inquiry-based learning managing classroom time adequately. References Concordia University (C.U.). (2012). Middle School Classroom Management Strategies. Ditrich, T. (2017). Meditation in Modern Education: Outlining a Pilot Programme from Australia. In Dasho Karma Ura, Dorji Penjore & Chhimi Dem (Eds), Mandala of 21st Century Perspectives: Proceedings of the International Conference on Tradition and Innovation in Vajrayana Buddhism (pp. 205-221). Dunbar, C. (2004). Best Practices In Classroom Management. Linda Chapel Jackson (Eds.). College of Education; Michigan State University, Education Development Trust . (2016). Successful School Leadership; Highbridge House, 16–18 Duke Street. Hanover Research. (2017). Best Practices In Evaluating And Improving School Climate. Korpershoek, H., Harms, T., de Boer, H., van Kuijk, M., & Doolaard, S. (2014). Effective classroom management strategies and classroom management programs for educational practice: A meta-analysis of the effects of classroom management strategies and classroom management programs on students’ academic, behavioural, emotional, and motivational outcomes. Groningen: RUG/GION. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol.9, No.28, 2018 25 Matherne, S. (n.d). Teacher skills and motivation both matter (though many education systems act like they don’t) OECD. (2016). OECD 2016 insights from the TALIS-PISA link data: Teaching strategies for instructional quality. Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of engineering education. Sieberer-Nagler, K. (2016). Effective Classroom-Management & Positive Teaching; Katharina; English Language Teaching, 9(1) doi:10.5539/elt.v9n1p163 Teemuangsai, S. & Meesook,C. (2017). Thailand’s classroom learning practices in secondary level: Are we ready for learning in the 21st-Century? International Journal of Science and Technology Educational Research, 8(1), 1-12. The Honor Level System. (2012). Discipline by Design: Serving classroom teachers and Students seeking a career in Education….; 9/15/2012 The World Bank. (2018). Learning to realize education’s promise. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank, Washington, DC 20433. Townsley, K. (2017). From STEM to STEAM: The neuroscience behind the movement towards arts integration in K-12 Curricula; Kayla; Portland State University. UNESCO. (2018). Issues and trends in education for sustainable development. A. Leicht, J. Heiss and W. J. Byun (eds), ISBN 978-92-3-100244-1

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