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144 Miriam Uhrínová, Jozef Zentko, Tomaš Jablonsky: SPIRITUAL FOLK CULTURE IN THE EDUCATIONAL REALITY IN THE CONTEXT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SLOVAKIA Informatol. 45, 2012., 2, 144 -147 ISSN 1330-0067 Coden: IORME7 INFO- 2060 UDK : 130.2:398:808.54: 007 Primljeno / Received: 2012-04-12 Stručni rad/Professional Paper COMMUNICATIONAL SPIRITUAL CULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SLOVAKIA KOMUNIKACIJSKA DUHOVNA KULTURA U KONTEKSTU OSNOVNOG OBRAZOVANJA U SLOVAČKOJ Miriam Uhrínová, Jozef Zentko, Tomaš Jablonsky Faculty of Pedagogy, Catholic University, Ružomberok, Slovakia Pedagoški fakultet, Katoličko sveučilište, Ružomberok, Slovačka Abstract The contribution shows a current trends related to the application of spiritual culture in the educa- tional process of primary education. Through dif- ferentiated characters it shows possible means for the implementation of folk art in creative arts ac- tivities in the educational process. The main narra- tive line of the paper is to demonstrate the applica- tion of elements of folk traditions in primary edu- cation, which is important foundation for the for- mation of positive attitudes to cultural heritage. It shows the possible cross-curricular context in the very educational process to enhance national awareness in children. Sažetak Rad prikazuje trenutne trendove koji se odnose na primjenu duhovne kulture u odgojno- obrazovnom procesu primarnog obrazovanja. Kroz diferencirane likove prikazuju se mogući načini za implementaciju narodne umjetnosti u kreativne umjetničke aktivnosti u obrazovnom procesu. Glavna narativna linija rada je prikaza- ti primjenu elemenata narodnih tradicija u os- novnom obrazovanju, što je važan temelj za formiranje pozitivnih stavova prema kulturnoj baštini. Prikazuje se mogući multidisciplinarni kontekst u samom obrazovnom procesu kako bi se poboljšala nacionalna svijest kod djece. Nowadays we see many educational methods and forms, dominated by various technical achievements of the time. Often we are dealing with alternative procedures to improve and en- hance the educational process. Many times the significant wealth of folk art and cultural heri- tage that is unique to each country is neglected. The diversity of rare spiritual folk culture is a good source of inspiration for various educa- tional activities in the area of education. Spiritual folk culture can be characterized as the summary of the components and elements of folk culture that can satisfied spiritual needs of man. In a system of spiritual culture in ethnography can be included popular religiosity, folk art, folklore (music, dance, literature and verbal), various folk traditions (family and family relationships, fam- ily customs) and rituals, traditional imaginations and knowledge about nature and man, the su- pernatural beings and forces, magic, hygiene and traditional medicine, metrology, aerospace, ori- entation in space and time and also the produc- tion and use of material values /1/. For spiritual culture is typical combining indi- vidual elements or their merging or linking and, therefore, in one time horizon are most common parts genetically related to various developmen- tal epochs. An important example of the use and application of spiritual culture in education is motivation through inspirational moments in slovak folk piety, which is linked to everyday life. These are all moments that create, coherent line of one's birth until his death. All domestic and field work, all the worries and joys of man, his family, and even the whole village and Catholic society was under God's protection and the protection of Mary. In the ordinary catholic households were visual artifacts, sacred images, adjusted with own individual aesthetic feeling, from which you perform domestic worship. Similarly, the cult of saints is closely tied to eve- ryday life and needs of catholic, peasant or 145 Miriam Uhrínová, Jozef Zentko, Tomaš Jablonsky: SPIRITUAL FOLK CULTURE IN THE EDUCATIONAL REALITY IN THE CONTEXT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SLOVAKIA Informatol. 45, 2012., 2, 144 -147 ISSN 1330-0067 Coden: IORME7 craftsman. In folk religiosity it is possible to find elements of sensualism and practicality. People have gradually adapted to the religious teachings that is close to them and to their own peasant culture /2/. Folk piety is thus a reflection of relig- ion in daily life of man. It is linked with the offi- cial church doctrine /3/. For the educational proc- ess in the subject of regional education it is nec- essary to use elements of folklore. Whether mu- sic, dance or folk compound expressions. Folk music in its content includes all the elements of folk art, which are based on expressions of music, namely the folk song and folk instrumental mu- sic. In the songs folk music is immediately con- nected with folk poetry and instrumental music component is connected with folklore dances /4/. People's spiritual culture offers us many chil- dren's dance and movement games that can be applied in the original educational process. These dances and games help to educate children in the emotional and moral, develop a sense of beauty, the culture movement, harmony, goodness, wak- ing up valuable human qualities such as dedica- tion and fairness. Reflect the love for nature and promote an interest in animals, work and play. Children can enjoy it in a natural way. Folk dance in its content includes: folk dance and also folk games that work together with rhythmically moving /5/. Folk dance was an important cultural expressions, as well as an essential part of social life. Folk dances are most commonly associated with rural part of the population - farmers, shep- herds, woodcutters, blacksmiths, shoemakers, cobblers etc. /6/. Folk dances have musically linked, strong form of movement that is stabi- lized within different types of dance types, func- tionally tied to cultural traditions and aesthetic feelings of rural environment. Dances with mu- sic, songs and games create a single organic line, which forms part of the bearing ceremonies and socially entertainment. They have a ceremonial function or entertaining fun /7/. Multiple folklore expressions combine into one coherent part vari- ous types of folklore such as song, music, dra- matic speech, dance and more. These include: folk games - eg. Bethlehem game, drama, festi- vals and customs /8/. Children's folk dance can be used in the educational process, mostly in the sport, pro-social, musical and literary education. Motion component in folk dance is an independ- ent expression and not just a complement to the action. This fact distinguishes the folk dance from movement games with song, rhyme and music /9/. Important role in the spiritual folk culture has fine art, whether planar or spatial character. The visual effects of planar art are various paintings on glass, on paper, canvas and so on., as well as lot of diverse printing or punch- ing. In spatial art we can find a different plastics made of wood, stone or other materials. Activi- ties associated with the presentation of folk art can be active or receptive character. By the appli- cation of particular elements we can use several types of organizational forms of teaching. Pupala and Zápotočná /10/ agree that when culture is more richer, more qualified, more diverse and differentiated, the more complex than the accul- turated process is more comlicated, that means it is more necessary to facilitate this process. This function have to take each school to which will help acculturation dominant role. School educate children in stable cultural values that enable children to get especially the link with that what is for their cultural area characteric semantically relevant and generally acceptable. It also argues that this process is education and knowledge in the school involved to ensure continuity of val- ues between generations, recognizing the poten- tial reproduction and reconstruction of these values, a new generation. Culture of each nation is manifested by knowing of ethno-cultural tradi- tions. Therefore, an integral part of education at all levels and types of schools from pre-school education should be acquainted with the folk traditions of the manifestations of material but also spiritual culture /11/. Folklore in education has three key functions: a) Social, which is reflected in its social sense. Pre-school children with games, drills and dance converge, creating cohesion within communities, children are to each other sympathetic and per- ceptive. b) a culture that is reflected in the knowledge and understanding of the ancestors way of life. They feel their joys, pains, worries, desires and senti- ments often expressed by singing, dancing and games, especially the various ceremonies (wed- ding, harvest, carnivals, etc.). c) National, which is reflected in the knowledge of the cultural heritage of their own nation. It 146 Miriam Uhrínová, Jozef Zentko, Tomaš Jablonsky: SPIRITUAL FOLK CULTURE IN THE EDUCATIONAL REALITY IN THE CONTEXT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SLOVAKIA Informatol. 45, 2012., 2, 144 -147 ISSN 1330-0067 Coden: IORME7 teaches children to know the history of their an- cestors and to be active in maintaining the cul- tural and national traditions, to create their posi- tions and relations /12/. For the implementation of elements of folk spiritual culture is the best use of activating different forms and methods of teaching. Masariková´s /13/ report said that pedadogy effectively helps in the process of get- ting to know their own history of the region and creating a positive relationship to the natural and cultural monuments. An important role in this context has the staging method, whose essence lies in the fact that children play a role, respec- tively, they stage a situation /14/. Playing the role is helping students to express personal views and thoughts /15/. These methods can be applied to children´s or folk theater, but also to the com- posite expressions of folklore. The charakter of folk theater has in the folklore many folk customs and traditions of the game. The basic features include a dramatic transformation of human character, the use of masks, props and costumes, the use of movement, facial expressions, lan- guage, and others. In our conditions, it is a school play, Passion play, Bethlehem game, Game of St.. Dorothy and the like. One of the most popular folk theaters are the children's theater and pup- pet theatre /16/. Horizon of folk theater is there- fore very wide. In it´s content includes not only the popular drama, but all manifestations of folk- lore reflected in the dramatic theater forms or flowing symptoms. The sphere of theater´s inter- est creates dramatic way, dialogue, costume, prop, gesture, mask, facial expressions and so on. /17/. This example of number of aesthetic ele- ments in one piece can create an interdisciplinary dialogue of the components. It offers application as a valuable dimension to cross-curricular con- text in the connection to learning process in pri- mary education. Suitable for the educational process is a method for the task. The Task is to create and use every teaching situation to ensure that students achieve a certain teaching objective /18/. Also, situational method, which is based on solving a problematic educational tasks following the confrontation of knowledge, skills, beliefs and attitudes of indi- vidual actors /19/. The scope for application of the spiritual elements of folk culture in primary education in Slovakia, is provided by education in arts and culture (in particular items of Music and Art), Language and communication (specifi- cally Slovak language and literature), Nature and Society (Geography subject), People and Values (specific subjects Religious and Ethical Educa- tion), Health and movement (the subject of Physical Education), which are precisely defined in the State Education Programme ISCED 1 - primary education. This area extends the cross- cutting themes, as best suitable are regional edu- cation and traditional folk culture and multicul- tural education (ISCED 1). The regional educa- tion, which is the most ideal subject of the cross- cutting themes in this educational process must be in choosing curriculum topics of regional themes compliance with certain principles /20/: - Quantity of regional information must not be contradictional to the educational scheme, - Inclusion of regional elements must be in response to a teaching subject, - It is necessary to select important personali- ties, work, etc. in regional theme. It should have typical features of the region and represent a positive model for students, - The impact of regional affiliation in relation to citizenship and nationality should not exag- gerate or attribute values to not correspond real- ity, - Should be a balanced focus on the artistic, conceptual, cognitive and educational values of regional development. According to Vavrdová /21/, the inclusion of elements of the regional education greatly enrich pupils' edication of new knowledge concerning the proximate environment. These are classified knowledge and understanding of the history, traditions, customs and so on. Selection should be done very carefully with regard to pupils' knowledge and their level of intellectual devel- opment. In all subjects, the possibility of folk culture at various educational topics is offered throughout the school year. Including all current possibilities of integrating modern technology into educa- tional practice, it is possible to use also the mul- timedia /22/. Important role in motivating students, are the intentions of the teacher's personality. Its role should be an effort that took students to encour- age their external stimuli and internal motivation 147 Miriam Uhrínová, Jozef Zentko, Tomaš Jablonsky: SPIRITUAL FOLK CULTURE IN THE EDUCATIONAL REALITY IN THE CONTEXT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SLOVAKIA Informatol. 45, 2012., 2, 144 -147 ISSN 1330-0067 Coden: IORME7 to keep this state of attention and interest in con- tinual. /23/. It is just the creativity of the teacher to know and apply the appropriate use of the interdisciplinary character of subjects in the edu- cational process and also in the whole pedagogic system. The area of spiritual folk culture includes a num- ber of issues that affect all areas of aesthetic edu- cation. It´s continuous intersection creates a sin- gle action line, which contributes to the presenta- tion of folk art and creating relationship to na- tional identity. References /1/ PANČUHOVÁ, E. - MINTÁLOVÁ, Z. a kol. 2004. Z ľudovej kultúry Turca. Martin: Matica slovenská, Martin 2004. /2/ ZAJICOVÁ, K. 1996. Mariánsky kult v ľudovej zbož- nosti, na príkladoch mariánskych pútnických miest. Bratislava : Katedra etnológie, 1996. /3/ BEŇUŠKOVÁ, Z. 1995. Vzťah profánneho a sakrálneho v obradoch a sviatkovaní. In: KILIÁNOVÁ, G. (ed.): Slovenský národopis, 43, č. 2, 1995. /4/ ELSCHEKOVÁ, A. – ELSCHEK, O. 2005. Úvod do štúdia slovenskej ľudovej hudby. Bratislava : Hudobné centrum, 2005. ISBN 80-88884-69-1. /5/ Ibidem /6/ MÁZOROVÁ, M. – ONDREJKA, K. a kol. 1991. Slovenské ľudové tance. Bratislava : SPN, 1991. ISBN 80-08-00322-7. /7/ ELSCHEKOVÁ, A. – ELSCHEK, O. 2005. Úvod do štúdia slovenskej ľudovej hudby. Bratislava : Hudobné centrum, 2005. ISBN 80-88884-69-1. /8/ Ibidem /9/ ŠIMONEKOVÁ, H. 2004. Ľudové tance. Bratislava: AT Publishing, 2004. /10/ PUPALA, B. - ZÁPOTOČNÁ, O. 2010. Vzdelávanie ako formovanie kultúrnej gramotnosti. In: KOLLÁRIKOVÁ, Z. - PUPALA, B. (eds.) 2010. Predškolská a elementárna pedagogika. Vyd. 2. Praha : Portál, 2010. s. 261-269. ISBN 978- 80-7367-828-9. /11/ ČELLÁROVÁ, L. 1997. Ľudové tradície a remeslá na Slovensku a ich využitie v štúdiu učiteľstva 1. st. ZŠ. Banská Bystrica : Univerzita Mateja Bela, 1997. ISBN 80-8055-129-4. /12/ IVANOVIČOVÁ, J. 2007. Rozvíjanie vzťahu ku kultúrnemu dedičstvu, zvykom a tradíciám regiónu. In: BUJNOVÁ, E. - IVANOVIČOVÁ, J. (eds.). 2007. Rozvojové a inovatívne programy edukácie so zameraním na regionálnu výchovu. Nitra: PF UKF, 2007, s. 27-36. ISBN 978-80-8094-101-7. /13/ MASARIKOVÁ, A. 2008. Historické fakty aplikované v pedagogike zážitku. In: BUJNOVÁ, E., RAČEKOVÁ, K. (eds).: Vybrané teoretické a metodické aspekty regionálnej výchovy. Nitra : UKF, 2008, s. 124-131. ISBN 978-80-8094-392-9. /14/ TUREK, I. 2010. Didaktika. Bratislava : lura Edition, 2010. ISBN 978-80-8070-322-8. /15/ KALHOUS, Z. – OBST, O. a kol. 2002. Školní didak- tika. Praha: Portál, 2002. ISBN 80-7178-253-X. /16/ ONDREJKA, K. 2008. Malý lexikón ľudovej kultúry Slovenska. Bratislava : Mapa Slovakia Plus, 2008. ISBN 978-80-8067-196-9. /17/ SLIVKA, M. 2002. Slovenské ľudové divadlo. Bratis- lava : Divadelný ústav, 2002. ISBN 80-88987-39-3. /18/ TUREK, I. 2010. Didaktika. Bratislava : lura Edition, 2010. ISBN 978-80-8070-322-8. /19/ KALHOUS, Z. – OBST, O. a kol. 2002. Školní didak- tika. Praha: Portál, 2002. ISBN 80-7178-253-X. /20/ CABANOVÁ, V. 2005. Tvorba obsahu vzdelania v regionalisticky orientovaných školách. Praha : Epocha, 2005. 165 s. ISBN 80-86328-69-4. /21/ VAVRDOVÁ, A. 2010. Připravenost učitele na výuku vlastivědy pro potřeby školské reformy. In Primární a preprimární pedagogika v teorii, praxi a výzkumu. Olomouc : Altyn, 2010. s. 162 – 166. ISBN 978-80-87224-08-3. /22/ BLAHÚTOVÁ, D.- MACKO, J. - STOLLÁROVÁ, N. 2011. Multimedia Elements in Biology and Chemistry Education. In: Informatologia. - ISSN 1330-0067, Vol. 44, No. 4 (2011), p. 353-354. /23/ BLAHÚTOVÁ, D.- PAĽOVČÍKOVÁ, E.- BALÁŽOVÁ, M. 2008. Motivácia žiakov vo vyučovaní biológie a prírodopisu podľa budúcich a začínajúcich pedagógov. In: Tvorivé vyučovanie. Ružomberok : Katedra pedagogiky PF KU, 2008, s. 11-17. (CD-room). ISBN 978-80-8084-374-8