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EFFECT OF GRIT ON THE SELF-ESTEEM OF WOMEN 1Jai chandru P, 2R. Manoj, 3Aditi Ganesh Athreya 1Student, M.Sc Clinical Psychology, Dr.M.G.R Educational & Research Institute 2Head of the Department, Department of Psychology, Dr.M.G.R Educational & Research Institute 3Asst Professor, Department of Psychology, Dr.M.G.R Educational & Research Institute [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] Abstract Grit refers to persevering in the face of adversity and maintaining effort and interest over time, despite setbacks, adversity, and growth plateaus. Self-esteem refers s to a person’s entire private sense of worth or value. The aim of this quantitative correlational study is to know the relationship between Grit and Self-esteem. 100 women in the age group of 18 to 32 Participated in the study, purposive sampling method was used to select the participants. The data was collected using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the grit scale. The significance of the relationship between the variables was checked by analyzing the data collected using Pearson’s product-moment correlation. The results show that there is no significant relationship between grit and self-esteem. Keywords: Grit, Self-esteem, Women 1. Introduction Persistence and desire for pursuing long-term goals characterize this personality trait. Grit refers to persevering in the face of adversity and maintaining effort and interest over time, despite setbacks, adversity, and growth plateaus. The expression of self-esteem refers s to a person’s entire private sense of worth or value. To put it another way, self-esteem can be described as how much someone values themselves and like themselves in any situation. People each across the world want to live more lives in order to be happier. As a result, experts are decreasingly fastening on what influences people’s life happiness. There’s a current belief that personality features can explain why some people in the same setting are happier than others. Grit is a major predictor of life satisfaction among characteristics similar as family, musketeers, finances, and culture. Grit is defined as a person’s strong desire to attain their objects via perseverance and passion. The will to achieve a lofty, long- term ideal in the face of invincible challenges”. They find it delicate to form and maintain positive connections, which can lead to depression. Self-esteem is an important aspect of one’s personality that has been told by once events. Individual performance doesn’t indicate a person’s Self-esteem. It’s determined by a person’s interest, perception, and life conception. Self-esteem involves variety of factors, including believing in oneself, accepting and learning from once failures, forgiving others, unconditional love and acceptance of oneself, planning and setting attainable life pretensions, visualizing tone- achieving and succeeding in life, and YMER || ISSN : 0044-0477 VOLUME 21 : ISSUE 6 (June) - 2022 http://ymerdigital.com Page No:503 creating and internalizing positive declarations. Self-esteem can be developed, irrespective of age, socioeconomic status, or educational background of an individual. Grit: This word GRIT was first coined by Duckworth and colleagues (2007) to describe the personality attribute of perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Grit, according to Duckworth (2007), is "passion and continuous persistence applied toward long-term performance with no regard for rewards or accolades along the way". It combines tenacity, determination, and self-control in the pursuit of long-term objectives that can take months, years, or even decades to achieve. When she was teaching arithmetic to seventh graders, the University of Pennsylvania psychologist began researching grit. She learned that IQ wasn't the only element that distinguished successful students from those who struggled, and that grit and the ability to stick to a goal over time was also a strong predictor of success. then devoted years researching the short- and long-term consequences of grit on people's academic, job, and personal relationships performance. Grit is defined as the determination to achieve a long-term objective despite the possibility of failure and hurdles (Doskoch & Flora, 2005). People with a high level of grit are more eager and feistier in their pursuit of their objectives and dreams. As a result, grit is a predictor of an individual's toughness and resilience (Vainio & Daukantaite, 2016). Furthermore, grit interacts with an individual's ability to forecast good marks in school or career success (Weisskirch,2016). Researchers have looked into the antecedents and effects of grit because of its importance. Duckworth and colleagues (2007), for example, suggest that, when compared to IQ, academic success or physical beauty Grit has a bigger impact on performance Grit is a positive, non-cognitive quality in the discipline of psychology that is based on an individual's tenacity of effort mixed with a love for a long-term goal or end state. This persistent effort encourages them to overcome problems to stand in the way of achievement and acts as a driving force in focusing on success. "Perseverance," "hardiness," "resilience," "ambition," "desire for achievement," and "conscientiousness" are all distinct but widely linked terms to grit. Individual differences relating to job success, rather than talent or ability, might be associated with these concepts. This contrast was highlighted in 1907, when William James encouraged researchers to look into how select people may access richer characteristic reservoirs, allowing them to achieve more than the typical person. Grit is defined as the determination and enthusiasm to attain long– term objective. According to Angela Duckworth, a University of Pennsylvania researcher, grit is a powerful predictor of success and capacity to achieve one's goals. The predictors of Grit include Increased ability to adjust to new situations, Persistence in confronting our anxieties, Increased self-confidence and self-esteem, Increased optimism, having growth mentality and taking initiative for growth, easily adapting to changes, Long-term success and fulfillment. The various types of grits are, “grit to persevere” which involves the ability to endure in a task or a significant goal for a lengthy period of time, regardless of the circumstances, “grit to control your thoughts” is the ability to control the negative thoughts about self of environment which arise automatically arises in s persons mind and leads to apprehension about once capacity to complete a task and acts as a barrier in overcoming failure, “grit to master fear” which if harnessed, may be a source of energy, enhancing our abilities and YMER || ISSN : 0044-0477 VOLUME 21 : ISSUE 6 (June) - 2022 http://ymerdigital.com Page No:504 attention and concentration and help us reach our full potential, “grit to be your best when you’re at a worst” which can be developed by practicing under conditions that are more tough than the ones a person can confront in real life by which the person maintains the ability to maintain the mental balance during contingencies and practice self-assurance that will help them to perform better in less stressful situations, “grit to train your weaknesses “by focusing only on working with the strengths because When strengths are amplified, they overwhelm and compensate for shortcomings, reducing their potential for harm and significance, “grit to recover” which can be developed by identifying the activities you enjoy or making every activity of enjoyable so that recovering from any pitfall becomes easy and also limits the intermediate breaks taken which can in turn help in maintaining the perseverance in all their activities . It can be difficult to take a vacation if you enjoy your job. If you enjoy jogging, even a few weeks off to allow an injury to recover might be heartbreaking. Taking time off to recover can cause restlessness and anxiety, especially among driven, top-performer types who thrive on action, being in the midst of things, pushing oneself, and getting things done. It's easy to dismiss breaks as a waste of time Self-esteem: Self-esteem is the belief in one's own worth or abilities, as well as regard for oneself. Self-esteem is the one's self-perceptions which may be influenced by emotional states such as triumph, despair, pride, and humiliation. "The self-concept is what we think about the self; self-esteem is the positive or negative judgments of the self, as in how we feel about it," (Smith and Mackie, 2007). Self-esteem is a desirable psychological construct since it predicts a variety of outcomes, including academic success, happiness, marital and relationship satisfaction and criminal behavior. Self-esteem can be applied to a single trait or to the entire person. Self-esteem is commonly thought of as a long-term personality attribute (trait self-esteem), though normal, short-term changes (state self-esteem) do exist. Self-worth, self-regard, self-respect, and self-integrity are synonyms or near-synonyms of self-esteem. A person's overall subjective sense of personal worth or value is referred to as self-esteem. To put it another way, self-esteem can be described as how much you value and like yourself regardless of the situation. People have high self-esteem, if people believe in themselves and realize that they are a valuable contributor to society. Even though they have some flaws, they have many strengths that help to define who they are. They always have a "half full" glass firmly believe in certain ideas and beliefs and are willing to defend them even when confronted with resistance. They also have feeling security to the extent that they are willing to change themselves in light of new information. They are able to act on what they believe to be the best option, trusting their own judgement and without feeling guilty if others do not agree. They Don't waste time worrying about what has happened in the past or what might happen in the future. They learn from the past and make plans for the future, yet they are completely immersed in the present. Fully faith in their ability to solve problems, not hesitating in the face of setbacks and challenges and feeling free to seek assistance from others when they require it are some of the qualities of people with high self-esteem. Low self-esteem is associated with low sense of self-worth, feelings that others are superior, finding it tough to articulate their demands get preoccupied with their flaws, have a lot of fear, self-doubt, concern, pessimistic outlook on life and a sense of powerlessness. It's possible that you're terrified of failing. Positive feedback may be difficult for you to accept. They find it difficult to say no and establish boundaries as a result of which they YMER || ISSN : 0044-0477 VOLUME 21 : ISSUE 6 (June) - 2022 http://ymerdigital.com Page No:505 tend to prioritize the needs of others over their own. Low self-esteem can contribute to a number of mental health issues, including anxiety and depression, limit people from achieving their objectives and maintain good relationships which can have a negative impact on quality of life. Even though High self-esteem is frequently associated with narcissism, there is several key differences between the two. Individuals with narcissistic qualities may appear to have high self-esteem, but their self-esteem is inherently unstable, fluctuating depending on the situation. Those having a high sense of self-worth may be fixated with perfection, insist on being right at all time, believe they can't fail, may believe they are more skillful or superior than others and drastically exaggerate their abilities and skills. When self-esteem is very high, it can lead to relationship issues, social difficulties, and an unwillingness to tolerate criticism. Self-esteem was once thought to be a basic human need or motive, according to many early beliefs. In his hierarchy of human needs, American psychologist Abraham Maslow (year)identified two types of "esteem". One is the need for external respect in the form of acknowledgment, success, and praise, and the other is the need for internal respect in the form of self-love, self-confidence, skill, or ability. Others' respect was seen to be more fragile and readily lost than one's own self-esteem. Individuals will be motivated to seek self-esteem if their other needs are met, and work towards self-actualization According to Maslow. The healthiest expression of self-esteem, according to Maslow, "is the one that manifests in the respect we deserve for others, more than acclaim, fame, and fortune." Modern theories of self-esteem investigate why people are motivated to hold a high opinion of themselves. According to the socio-meter theory, self-esteem emerged as a way to gauge one's social position and acceptance. Terror Management Theory claims that self- esteem has a protective role, reducing worry about life and death. Carl Rogers, a proponent of humanistic psychology, believed that the root of many people's issues is that they loathe themselves and believe they are unworthy of love. This is why Rogers believed that offering a client unconditional acceptance was important and that doing so may help the client's self-esteem. In his therapy sessions with clients, he always maintained a pleasant attitude. It's vital to distinguish self-esteem from self- efficacy, which refers to how confident you are in your ability to handle future actions, performance, or abilities. According to (Bushra Hossain et al, 2020) in their three-year longitudinal cohort study to analyze if grit and resilience were linked to anxiety, depression, academic achievement, and overall quality of life in students with RD from three schools found that there were statistically significant relationships between grit and resilience and all outcomes and Improved grit and resilience were linked to lower anxiety. The study Matthias Sutter et al (2022), Grit has been identified as a critical non- cognitive quality that has been linked to academic accomplishment and labor market success according to him Grit is defined as a child’s tenacity in a high-stakes endeavor and their readiness to effectively challenge themselves with a new, more difficult assignment. They discovered that grit rises significantly with age, parents’ appraisal of their child’s grit is linked to their child’s real behavior, Perseverance is aided by parental education. and children’s patience has little to do with their grit. YMER || ISSN : 0044-0477 VOLUME 21 : ISSUE 6 (June) - 2022 http://ymerdigital.com Page No:506 According to Georgiana Karadas (2022) Subjective career success has remained a critical topic in careers studies due to the ever-changing organizational and societal settings that make reliance on external definitions of success impossible or undesirable and Personality qualities and job resources have been found as important sources of subjective career success in research. According to them Grit, as a personality trait, in combination with I-deals (job resources) and employee perceptions of their glass ceiling, are elements that can increase employees’ subjective career success. Geum-Sook Oh (2022), in his study investigated life stress, grit, and degree of adaptation to college life in male nursing students, as well as the effect of grit mediating the relationship between life stress and college life adjustment and it was found that Life stress had a negative relationship with college life adaptation and grit, but grit had a positive relationship with college life adaptation. EunBee Kim et al (2021), study analyzed how middle school kids’ self-esteem for mental health effects their academic accomplishment and to see if GRIT has a mediating effect on academic excitement. And found that Self-esteem had a large positive impact on GRIT, and GRIT had a significant positive impact on academic excitement. The study also discovered that GRIT and academic excitement mediated the relationship between self- esteem and academic accomplishment. The research by Ji Young Park et al, (2017), to see if development perspective and grit can mediate the association between human rights victimization and self-esteem college students found that human right victimization was shown to be considerably and adversely connected with self-esteem, growth mindset, and grit, whereas self-esteem was found to be strongly and positively correlated with growth mindset and grit. They also found that human rights victimization has a considerable negative influence on self-esteem, growth attitude, and grit, according to path analysis, while Growth attitude and grit, on the other hand, have a strong beneficial impact on self-esteem. And the association between human rights victimization and self-esteem was mediated by a growth mindset and grit. The implication of the study was that college students’ self-esteem might be boosted by cultivating a growth attitude and tenacity. The study Do-Hee Kim (2018), to analyze the mediating impacts of depression, academic helplessness, and a smartphone addiction tendency on adolescents’ self-esteem and grit found that there was a positive association between self-esteem and grit, while depression, academic helplessness, and smartphone addiction had negative correlations with self-esteem and grit and sadness, academic helplessness, and smartphone addiction tendency were found to mediate the association between self-esteem and grit, and it was also discovered that all paths mediated sequentially were significant. They suggested that education and intervention focusing on self-esteem, depression, academic helplessness, and smartphone addiction could be beneficial in helping adolescents acquire an interest in certain goals and persevere in their efforts in these days of widespread smartphone use. Mengyuan Fang et al, (2018) looked at how grit affects life satisfaction in this research in 218 full-time employees, and found that the association between grit and life happiness was not greater than that of the relationship between grit and self-esteem. The goal of this study was to see if there were any differences in adolescent self-esteem and grit depending on the type of parental attitude. The data of 2,438 first-year middle YMER || ISSN : 0044-0477 VOLUME 21 : ISSUE 6 (June) - 2022 http://ymerdigital.com Page No:507 school students in the 2018 year were analyzed as part of the Korea Children Youth Panel Survey performed by the National Youth Policy Institute. Hierarchical cluster analysis and k-mean cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. As a result, four types of adolescent parental attitudes were identified: “passive affection acceptance,” “active affection acceptance,” “authoritarian inconsistency,” and “lack of affection rejection.” There were also substantial differences in self-esteem and grit among the four parenting attitudes clusters. The “active affection acceptance” group 2 had the highest self-esteem and grit. To promote adolescent self-esteem and grit, individualized parental education will be required in the future, and this study can be used as a foundation for the development of educational programs. (Il Tae Park, 2021). 2. Materials & Methods Aim: To find the relationship between GRIT and the self-esteem of women. Hypothesis: H0 - “There is no significant relationship between GRIT and self-esteem among women”. Research design: A correlational research design was employed in this study. Correlation is a statistical tool that is used to measure the degree of relationship between two variables. It can assume whether there is a linear relationship existing between the variables which means one variable is Independent (IV) and the other variable is Dependent (DV). Sample: The sample for this study was selected by random sampling method in which the selected participants between the age group of 18-32 were requested to complete the questionnaire after explaining to them the objective of the study and getting their consent to participate in the study. The total sample population taken for the study was 100. Tool description: The Grit Scale assesses a person’s level of grit, which refers to one’s passion and perseverance for long-term goals. The scale was developed by Duckworth. A. L & Quinn. P. D (2009). The grit scale has 17 questions each scored as five-point Likert scale. The composite reliability was 0.82. The scale validity was predictive validity. The six items have reversed scoring. The average score is calculated. The highest level of score indicates higher level of grit. The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES) is a universal self-esteem assessment instrument. The tool was originally developed by Dr. Morris Rosenberg (1965), remains a universal choice for helping us understand levels of our self-esteem. It consists of 10 items related to overall feelings of self-worth or self-acceptance. The items are answered on a four-point scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The Rosenberg self- esteem internal reliability consistency as 0.77 The scale has showed predictive validity, as well as internal consistency and test–retest reliability (Schmitt & Allik, 2005; Torrey, Mueser, McHugo, & Drake, 2000). Higher score indicates higher self-esteem. YMER || ISSN : 0044-0477 VOLUME 21 : ISSUE 6 (June) - 2022 http://ymerdigital.com Page No:508 Statistics used: The Pearson correlation is used as it measures to analyze the strength of the linear relationship between two variables. This study also involved both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics are broken down into measures of central tendency and measures of variability (spread). Measures of central tendency include the mean, median, and mode. Inferential statistics Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the intensity of the relationship between the two variables among the sample population to make generalizations about the larger population. 3. Result & Discussion Table 3.1: indicates the relationship between Grit and Self-esteem S.no Variable Mean Standard Deviation N r 1. Grit 59.41 7.9629 100 0.094 2. Self esteem 23.16 3.9401 To investigate the relationship between GRIT and self-esteem, table 3.1 shows, the hypothesis was checked using Pearson coefficient correlation. The descriptive statistics reveal that the mean value for GRIT is 59.41 and it is high compared to self-esteem value which is 23.16. The Standard Deviation for grit is 7.9629 and self-esteem is 3. 9401. The Pearson correlation coefficient r is 0.094 which is not significant. Hence the null hypothesis is accepted which implies that there is no significant relationship between GRIT and Self-esteem levels. Although the previous studies claimed that there is a moderate relationship existing between GRIT and Self-esteem in different populations. GRIT has also been seen as a part of self-esteem. There can be others factors which contribute to the self-esteem and GRIT of the individual like self-confidence, self-worth, motivation, ambition of the person, goal achieving motives. While GRIT is experienced and perceived when individuals are subject to difficult situations and contingencies which require emotional balance motivation and perseverance which helps them to overcome the barriers and achieve their goals, self- esteem is a consistent status the person experiences in all situations and how much a person appreciate and like themselves regardless of circumstances. Hence the non-significant relationship between Grit and self-esteem may be attributed to the fact that even if the person has high value about himself if he finds it difficult to manage contingencies, solve problems or maintain the perseverance to achieve his goal then it suggests that the person does not have adequate grit. At the same time there are all possibilities that people with low self-esteem may rise up during crisis situations, organize and consolidate their resources, work at their level best to overcome such crisis situations. Generally, in the Indian population women are perceived as a weaker gender and tend to be treated so which does affect their self-esteem. However, it has been observed that the same females rise up to fight and achieve their goals whenever they are subject to insults or they face crisis situations especially associated with their family or career. Moreover, researches have shown that more than the self-esteem of an individual Girt has significant impact on goal achievement which can also be the reason why there is no significant relationship between Grit and self-esteem. YMER || ISSN : 0044-0477 VOLUME 21 : ISSUE 6 (June) - 2022 http://ymerdigital.com Page No:509 4. Conclusion From the above research study, we can conclude that there is no significant relationship existence between grit level and self-esteem among women. Limitations: • The sample population was confined to the city of Chennai, Tamil Nādu. • Population consisted of only female participants. (18-32) • Only women with adequate English knowledge to the extent of understanding the statements in the questionnaire taken for the study. Future Scope: 1. We can further use this study is a corporate set up also to know how far grit level help in going up the ladder of leadership among working women. 2. We can further use this research to study contribution of grit level among leaders irrespective of gender in an organizational set up. References [1] Baumeister, R. F, et.al., (2003). "Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles?". Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 4 (1): 1–44. [2] Chunhua Ma et al., (2022), Linking classmate autonomy support with prosocial behavior in Chinese left-behind adolescents: The moderating role of self-esteem and grit, Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 195,2022,111679, ISSN 0191-8869 [3] Crede Marcus et al., (2017). 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