effects of time management on the pass rate of undergraduate

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Summary of effects of time management on the pass rate of undergraduate

EFFECTS OF TIME MANAGEMENT ON THE PASS RATE OF UNDERGRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE OFFICE MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS K. Ngwane, A. Sikhakhane Durban University of Technology (SOUTH AFRICA) Abstract The impact of time management has been debated to be the cause of a number of students not performing well and failing their course work. This research outlines, exposes, and provides solutions to prevent factors that lead to mismanagement of time and the throughput rate of students. This study was done in order to identify these factors and assist students from being negatively affected by such factors to help them achieve their academic goals and objectives. Although these factors that impact time management may not be noticeable, it is important that they are identified and necessary precaution measures be implemented so that students use their time effectively and efficiently. This will also assist the department in having a high pass rate thus producing a higher number of graduates. Quantitative method of data collection was used in the form of questionnaires. This aided the researcher in having valid, direct, and accurate data collection, as there was one-on-one communication between the researcher and the participants. All office management and technology students were interviewed to get input from various levels of the programme. After identifying the factors that impact time management, the researcher has suggested remedies that will involve prioritizing between coursework, social life and all other life circumstances that may hinder the achievement of academic goals or objectives. One of the findings of this study is that time management, like any other management, benefits from analysis and planning. To understand and apply time management principles, one must know not only know how to use time, but also what problems one encounter in using it wisely, and what causes them. From this base one can learn to improve effectiveness and efficiency through better time management. Keywords: Time Management, Mismanagement, Prioritising, Goal setting. 1 INTRODUCTION In the modern world, time is seen as an indefinitely divisible and usable commodity. It helps to infuse the concept of time through the institution. All the material and human resources possessed by organizations can be enhanced in the course of time or be transformed as time goes on; yet the only asset that cannot be changed, purchased, or stored is time itself. The secret to achieving success in life is effectively managing this resource that everyone possesses equally and paying sufficient emphasis to planning (Macan, Shahani, Dipboye & Phillips, 2000). Though effective and efficient use of time varies with respect to the tasks performed, the further increase in the level of knowledge and skills expected from modern employees has further increased the necessity of time planning. The road to success in social life passes through effective and efficient working which is only possible via time management. The competitive environment we live in today encourages people from as early as their elementary education to plan and manage time effectively. The high performance required by competitive conditions forces organizations and directors to use time effectively and stipulates the search to control time (Alay & Koçak, 2003). Time management plays a vital role in improving student’s academic performance and achievements. Each student should have time management ability which includes setting goals & priorities, using time management mechanism and being organized in using time. Here time management is only possible through self-motivation; performance, ability and motivation (Brigitte, Claessens, Eerde, & Rutte, 2005). These are the few activities performed by today’s university students, which act as a barrier between them and their academic performance. Due to miss management of time they gap behind. This study will help to analyze the positive or negative impact of time management on academic performance of students. It will also help to make some decision about changes we would like to make to use our time more effectively (Noftle, Robins & Richard, 2007). There is no one right way to manage our time; Proceedings of EDULEARN19 Conference 1st-3rd July 2019, Palma, Mallorca, Spain ISBN: 978-84-09-12031-4 10455 however; it is important to get to know our self, so we can make good decisions about how to use our time. Likewise, in the process of providing educational services, this issue has been a subject of interest discussed and emphasized in several platforms and an attempt has been initiated to assess and analyze time and the time management attitudes and behaviors of students in educational institutes (Denlinger, 2009). Based on the necessity of effective time management required from students during their academic and professional life, field research has been conducted in the present paper towards the aim of designating their position with respect to effective time management and determining the effect of their time management skills on their academic achievements. 2 METHODOLOGY An extensive literature review was conducted with the intention of obtaining a thorough understanding of the topic being researched, gathering evidence and appraising and applying the evidence to support all assertions. The literature review included electronic media in several databases, published papers, conference papers, newspaper articles, journal articles, dissertations and books. Quantitative technique was also used to collect data. Questionnaires were used to collect data. The target population for this study was 510 students of the Office Management and Technology Programme, Durban Campus. The Programme consisted of students from different races, cultures, backgrounds and levels of study. Therefore, this assisted in getting adequate results which this study intended to find. The Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling technique is going to be used for this particular study. 20% of the total number of registered students on each level of the programme is going to be represented in the sample. The sample size of this study will be 102 students from the Department of Office Management and Technology. 3 CONCLUSIONS ON THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The following section presents the conclusions in relation to the achievement of objectives. • Objective One: To find factors that affects students’ time management and the throughput of the Office Management and Technology Programme. 3.1 Peer Pressure or Social Surrounding Table 3.1 Peer pressure or social surrounding affects my time management. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 6 5.9 5.9 5.9 Disagree 9 8.8 8.8 14.7 Occasionally 32 31.4 31.4 46.1 Agree 36 35.3 35.3 81.4 Strongly Agree 19 18.6 18.6 100.0 Total 102 100.0 100.0 • From birth through age six, the family unit crafts a child's sense of identity. Parents and siblings affect a child's likes, dislikes, tastes in clothing, food and music and, perhaps most importantly, values. Once children enter school, they form connections to the larger group of their peers. This group brings innovative ideas and experiences. Peer pressure occurs when a student's actions are influenced by this group. Therefore, this study has found that the "pressure" happens when peers suggest or insist on actions that stray from the child's normal behavior and values. Though the phrase is often used negatively, peer pressure can sometimes cause positive outcomes. 10456 3.2 The Lecturing Style or Method Is Conducive or Friendly To Me Table 3.2 The Lecturing Style or Method is conducive or friendly to me. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 2 2.0 2.0 2.0 Disagree 10 9.8 9.8 11.8 Occasionally 44 43.1 43.1 54.9 Agree 36 35.3 35.3 90.2 Strongly Agree 10 9.8 9.8 100.0 Total 102 100.0 100.0 Objective two: To identify the primary causes of the factors that consumes students’ time negatively. 3.3 My Financial Status Will Affect Me Completing My Studies in Record Time Table 3.3 My financial status will affect me completing my studies in record time. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 9 8.8 8.8 8.8 Occasionally 39 38.2 38.2 47.1 Agree 29 28.4 28.4 75.5 Strongly Agree 25 24.5 24.5 100.0 Total 102 100.0 100.0 • The South African literature affirms that socio-economic status is related to dropout or perseverance (Ministerial Report, 2008; CHE, 2007; DoE, 2008/9; Letseka et al., 2008). The international literature confirms this (Tinto, 2002). • One of the findings is that some black parents in South Africa have had no formal education at all, or only some secondary education. Many black students depended on their parents or guardians for financial support to pay their fees and/or supplement their allowances from NSFAS. Many of these students take on full-time or part-time employment and some are doing some dubious jobs, adding to their stress. Objective three: To provide the precautionary measures to prevent such factors from hindering with the achievement of academic goals and objectives. 3.4 I Get Enough/Adequate Assistance from the Department (Tutoring/Extra Classes) Table 3.4 I get enough/adequate assistance from the Department (Tutoring/Extra classes). Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 3 2.9 3.0 3.0 Disagree 17 16.7 16.8 19.8 Occasionally 50 49.0 49.5 69.3 Agree 25 24.5 24.8 94.1 Strongly Agree 6 5.9 5.9 100.0 Total 101 99.0 100.0 Missing System 1 1.0 Total 102 100.0 10457 • Against a background of increasing numbers of first year students entering Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), a record of poor academic performance, a lack of success and the low throughput rates currently being experienced at most South African HEIs. (Scott, Yeld and Hendry, 2007). • It has been found that good small group teaching improves the teacher-student relationship and encourages a collaborative approach to learning as well as providing a model for teamwork typical in the workplace (Griffiths, Houston and Lazenbatt, 1996). • Also teaching in small groups such as tutorials helps in encouraging contacts between students and staff Developing reciprocity and cooperation among students. 3.5 My Residence or Where I Stay Affects My Time Management Table 3.5 My Residence or where I stay affects my Time Management. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 5 4.9 5.0 5.0 Disagree 18 17.6 17.8 22.8 Occasionally 48 47.1 47.5 70.3 Agree 13 12.7 12.9 83.2 Strongly Agree 17 16.7 16.8 100.0 Total 101 99.0 100.0 Missing System 1 1.0 Total 102 100.0 • Another important finding is the capacity of the residence halls to facilitate students’ social (and academic) involvement with other students, with faculty members, and with their institution. The influence of residences on the social and academic involvement of students revolves around the dynamics generated from the so-called ‘living learning centres’ (LLCs). The influence of these LLCs will depend on the nature or type of activities and programmatic structures they offer. Thus, academically rich residential ambiences that include faculty participation and academic and cultural programmes, including academic advising, mentoring, and onsite classes, would be more educationally powerful environments than the environment found in traditional residence halls. 4 FINDINGS FROM THE LITERATURE The findings of the literature are based on the conceptual framing, which is outlined below. 4.1 Time Management • Time is a unique resource. Day to day, everyone has the same amount. It cannot be accumulated. You cannot turn it on or off. It cannot be replaced. It must be spent at the rate of sixty seconds every minute. • One of the findings of this study is that time management, like any other management, benefits from analysis and planning. To understand and apply time management principles, one must know not only know how to use time, but also what problems one encounter in using it wisely, and what causes them. From this base one can learn to improve effectiveness and efficiency through better time management. • The study also finds that time management is a personal process and must fit one’s style and circumstances. It takes a strong commitment to change old habits, however this choice is available and one’s for taking. • Therefore, this concept was relevant to the study because it is the main factor that may cause students not to achieve their academic goals and objectives. • To identify the primary causes of the factors that consumes students’ time negatively. 10458 4.2 Psychology This study discovered that most of tertiary students are carrying the responsibilities of themselves without any guidance or supervision. That’s when the psychology comes in. It is upon a student whether they focus on their primary reason of being at the University or not, through mental capacity as well as the level of reasoning as the key that can enable one to achieve their academic goals and objectives but that can only happen if the student is fully taking the responsibility and focuses on the course that they are doing or enrolling. 4.3 Goal Setting • The process of setting goals allows students to choose where they want to go in school and what they want to achieve. By knowing what they want to achieve, they know what they must concentrate on and improve. Goal setting gives students long-term vision and short-term motivation. 5 CONCLUSION This chapter provided conclusions relating to the literature review and empirical findings. It also provided recommendations emanating from the analyses of findings. The study recommends that the lecturing style and method should be improved, provide more extra classes and tutoring, allocate student as per the course of study at residences, assist more students financially, and improve communication and time management. In conclusion, all the objectives of this study were achieved. The recommendations made in this chapter represent some of the actions that could possibly be taken to improve time management and throughput of the department of Information and Corporate Management, Durban University of Technology, Durban. REFERENCES [1] T.H. Macan, C. Shahani, R. Dipboye and A.P. Phillips, (1990). College students’ time management: Correlations with Academic performance and stress. Journal of Eductional Psychology, 82(4), 760– 780. [2] Alay, S. and S. Koçak, 2003. Relationship between time management and academic achievement of university students. [3] J.C. Brigitte, W.V. Claessens, Eerde, C.G. Rutte, and R.A. Roe, (2005). A review of the Time management literature. [4] E. Noftle, N. Robins., & W. Richard, 2007. Personality predictors of academic outcomes: Big five correlates of GPA & SAT scores. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93: 116-130. [5] J.C. Denlinger, (2009). The Effects of Time Management on College Students’ Academic Performance, Ball State University, Fact Book (students/enrollment). [6] Council on Higher Education. Higher Education Monitor: Access and Throughput. No.6: (Online) Available at: http://www.che.ac.za. ISBN 978-1-919856-75-9. Date: 06-10-2007. [7] DoE. 2008. Report of the Ministerial Committee on Transformation and Social Cohesion and Elimination of Discrimination in Higher Education Institutions. 30 November. Pretoria. [8] DoE. 2009. Terms of Reference for the Review of National Student Financial Aid Scheme. Government Gazette No. 32317, 10 June. Pretoria: Government Printer. [9] M. Letseka, and S. Maile, 2008. ‘High university drop-out rates: a threat to South Africa’s future’, HSRC Policy Brief: Human Science Research Council. [10] V. Tinto, 2002. Taking students retention seriously: rethinking the first year of college. Accessed on 16 May 2016. [11] L. Scott, N. Yeld and J. Hendry, 2007. A case for improving teaching and learning in South African Higher education. Higher Education Monitor 6 Pretoria; CHE. 10459 [12] S.K. Griffiths, A. Houston and A. Lazenbatt, 1996. Enhancing student learning through peer tutoring in higher education. Coleraine; University of Ulster. 10460