Handbook of Positive Psychology - Courses

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2022 • 848 Pages • 3.99 MB • English
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Handbook of Positive Psychology C. R. Snyder Shane J. Lopez, Editors OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS HANDBOOK OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY This page intentionally left blank HANDBOOK OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Edited by C. R. Snyder Shane J. Lopez 1 2002 1 Oxford New York Athens Auckland Bangkok Bogota´ Buenos Aires Cape Town Chennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai Nairobi Paris Sa˜o Paulo Shanghai Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsaw and associated companies in Berlin Ibadan Copyright � 2002 by Oxford University Press Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016 Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Handbook of positive psychology / edited by C. R. Snyder and Shane J. Lopez. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and indexes. ISBN 0–19–513533–4 1. Psychology. 2. Health. 3. Happiness. 4. Optimism. I. Snyder, C. R. II. Lopez, Shane J. BF121 6.H212 2002 150.19'8—dc21 2001021584 1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper To the positive in all of us . . . This page intentionally left blank Foreword It gives me great joy to know that so many sci- entists—many of whom have contributed to this landmark volume—are striving to inspire people to develop a more wholesome focus on the positive aspects of life. I am convinced that one day these scientists will be recognized as visionary leaders, whose research helped to identify, elevate, and celebrate the creative po- tential of the human spirit. Until recently, I had rarely heard about sci- entific research that examined the life- enhancing power of “spiritual principles”—pos- itive character traits and virtues such as love, hope, gratitude, forgiveness, joy, future- mindedness, humility, courage, and noble pur- pose. Perhaps my long-standing interest in these spiritual principles and character traits is best understood by sharing with you the fol- lowing perspective. My grandfather was a phy- sician during the Civil War, and several of my own children are physicians today. I think we would all agree that my children, because of the enormous number of dollars earmarked for medical research during this past century, know a hundred times—perhaps a thousand times— more about the human body than my grand- father ever did. But I have always wondered: Why is it that we know so little about the hu- man spirit? The research highlighted in this volume pro- vides overwhelming evidence that many tal- ented scholars and award-winning researchers are reclaiming what was once at the core of their discipline: the psyche, the study and under- standing of the power of the human spirit to benefit from life’s challenges. The men and women who have written chapters for this handbook, as well as countless more inspired by their research, are courageously gathering data and testing hypotheses to help us learn more about an essential question that perhaps serves as the North Star for a positive psychology: What enables us to override our biological in- clinations to be selfish and instead find meaning, purpose, and value in nurturing and upholding the positive qualities of our human nature? In fact, I am more optimistic than ever that one day soon a group of scientists will publish findings that will advance humankind’s under- standing of a spiritual principle that has been at the core of my own life’s purpose: agape love. One of my favorite sayings is, “Love hoarded dwindles, but love given grows.” Love is more powerful than money; unlike money, the more love we give away, the more we have left. Per- haps, dear reader, you will be the researcher who studies a spiritual principle such as agape love scientifically or empirically. Wouldn’t all of hu- mankind benefit from knowing more about this fundamental “law of life,” and many others? Finally, I am hopeful that as current and fu- ture researchers catch the vision of a positive psychology, and as foundations and govern- ments initiate programs to support this ground- breaking and beneficial work, we will all forge ahead in a spirit of humility. We know so little, my friends, about the many gifts that God has given to each and every human being. As the truly wise tell us, “How little we know, how eager to learn.” Radnor, Pennsylvania Sir John Templeton This page intentionally left blank Preface How often does one have the opportunity to edit the first handbook for a new approach to psychology? We had a “once-in-a-lifetime” scholarly adventure in preparing this Handbook of Positive Psychology. There was never a ques- tion in our minds about editing this volume. We were at the right place at the right time, and the book simply had to happen. Fortunately, our superb editors at Oxford University Press, Joan Bossert and Catharine Carlin, shared our enthusiasm about the neces- sity of this volume, and they made this huge editorial undertaking seamless in its unfolding. The authors we invited to write chapters readily agreed. Much to our delight, this handbook al- most took on a life of its own. We attribute this to the vitality of the authors, along with the power of their positive psychology ideas and science. We complemented each other as an editorial team. Snyder was a stickler for detail and yet sought ingenuity in thought and expression. Lopez saw linkages in ideas, would call upon the related literatures, and brought unbridled en- thusiasm to the editorial process. What this combination produced was a line-by-line anal- ysis and feedback in every chapter. In short, we were “hands-on” editors. Given the stature of the contributing scholars, with numerous awards, distinguished professorships, and honorary degrees, they certainly could have balked at such editorial scrutiny. But they did not. Instead, they used our feedback and revised their already superb first drafts into stellar subsequent chapters. We are indebted to this remarkable group of authors for their patience in this process. Their dedication to excel- lence can be seen in the chapters of this hand- book. In order to help readers in gaining a sense of the topics contained in each chapter, we have asked our expert authors to identify sources that provide excellent overviews of their areas. Therefore, in the reference section of each chap- ter, the authors have placed an asterisk in front of such key readings. We encourage our readers to use these background sources when more de- tailed descriptions of a topic are desired. Now, before you peruse the contributions of the outstanding scholars, consider the following . . . Imagine a planet where the inhabitants are self-absorbed, hopeless, and filled with psycho- logical problems and weaknesses. Confusion, anxiety, fear, and hostility race through their minds. These creatures “communicate” with each other by lying, faking, torturing, fighting, and killing. They hurt each other, and they hurt themselves. Of course, this imaginary planet is not far away—we call it Earth. Although these problems do exist, they are made to loom even larger because of the propensities of psychology and its sister disciplines to focus on the weak- nesses in humankind. Now let us imagine an- other planet where the inhabitants are caring, hopeful, and boundless in their psychological strengths. Their thoughts and feelings are clear, focused, and tranquil. These creatures commu- nicate by spending time talking and listening to each other. They are kind to each other and to themselves. Again, this imaginary, not-so-far- x PREFACE away planet is Earth. These positive descriptions aptly fit many of the people on Earth. In this regard, hardly anyone (including some cynics) quibbles with this latter conclusion. But no sci- ence, including psychology, looks seriously at this positive side of people. It is this latter trou- bling void that positive psychology addresses. As such, this handbook provides an initial sci- entific overview of the positive in humankind. As with any new and promising paradigm, the reactions of people such as you will determine the fate of positive psychology. Although sci- ence certainly advances on the merits of partic- ular ideas and facts, it also is true that the suc- cess of a new theory rests, in part, upon its ability to gather supporters. On this point, this handbook may enable you to cast a more in- formed vote as to the enduring viability of pos- itive psychology. Lawrence, Kansas C. R. Snyder Shane J. Lopez Contents Contributors, xv PART I. INTRODUCTORY AND HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 1 Positive Psychology, Positive Prevention, and Positive Therapy, 3 martin e. p. seligman PART II. IDENTIFYING STRENGTHS 2 Stopping the “Madness”: Positive Psychology and the Deconstruction of the Illness Ideology and the DSM, 13 james e. maddux 3 Widening the Diagnostic Focus: A Case for Including Human Strengths and Environmental Resources, 26 beatrice a. wright shane j. lopez 4 Toward a Science of Mental Health: Positive Directions in Diagnosis and Interventions, 45 corey l. m. keyes shane j. lopez PART III. EMOTION-FOCUSED APPROACHES 5 Subjective Well-Being: The Science of Happiness and Life Satisfaction, 63 ed diener richard e. lucas shigehiro oishi 6 Resilience in Development, 74 ann s. masten marie-gabrielle j. reed 7 The Concept of Flow, 89 jeanne nakamura mihaly csikszentmihalyi 8 Positive Affectivity: The Disposition to Experience Pleasurable Emotional States, 106 david watson 9 Positive Emotions, 120 barbara l. fredrickson 10 The Social Construction of Self- Esteem, 135 john p. hewitt 11 The Adaptive Potential of Coping Through Emotional Approach, 148 annette l. stanton anita parsa jennifer l. austenfeld xii CONTENTS 12 The Positive Psychology of Emotional Intelligence, 159 peter salovey john d. mayer david caruso 13 Emotional Creativity: Toward “Spiritualizing the Passions”, 172 james r. averill PART IV. COGNITIVE-FOCUSED APPROACHES 14 Creativity, 189 dean keith simonton 15 The Role of Personal Control in Adaptive Functioning, 202 suzanne c. thompson 16 Well-Being: Mindfulness Versus Positive Evaluation, 214 ellen langer 17 Optimism, 231 charles s. carver michael f. scheier 18 Optimistic Explanatory Style, 244 christopher peterson tracy a. steen 19 Hope Theory: A Member of the Positive Psychology Family, 257 c. r. snyder kevin l. rand david r. sigmon 20 Self-Efficacy: The Power of Believing You Can, 277 james e. maddux 21 Problem-Solving Appraisal and Psychological Adjustment, 288 p. paul heppner doug-gwi lee 22 Setting Goals for Life and Happiness, 299 edwin a. locke 23 The Passion to Know: A Developmental Perspective, 313 michael schulman 24 Wisdom: Its Structure and Function in Regulating Successful Life Span Development, 327 paul b. baltes judith glu¨ ck ute kunzmann PART V. SELF-BASED APPROACHES 25 Reality Negotiation, 351 raymond l. higgins 26 The Truth About Illusions: Authenticity and Positivity in Social Relationships, 366 william b. swann brett w. pelham 27 Authenticity, 382 susan harter 28 Uniqueness Seeking, 395 michael lynn c. r. snyder 29 Humility, 411 june price tangney PART VI. INTERPERSONAL APPROACHES 30 Relationship Connection: The Role of Minding in the Enhancement of Closeness, 423 john h. harvey brian g. pauwels susan zickmund 31 Compassion, 434 eric j. cassell 32 The Psychology of Forgiveness, 446 michael e. mccullough charlotte vanoyen witvliet 33 Gratitude and the Science of Positive Psychology, 459 robert a. emmons charles m. shelton CONTENTS xiii 34 Love, 472 susan hendrick clyde hendrick 35 Empathy and Altruism, 485 c. daniel batson nadia ahmad david a. lishner jo-ann tsang 36 How We Become Moral: The Sources of Moral Motivation, 499 michael schulman PART VII. BIOLOGICAL APPROACHES 37 Toughness, 515 richard a. dienstbier lisa m. pytlik zillig 38 A Role for Neuropsychology in Understanding the Facilitating Influence of Positive Affect on Social Behavior and Cognitive Processes, 528 alice m. isen 39 From Social Structure to Biology: Integrative Science in Pursuit of Human Health and Well-Being, 541 carol d. ryff burton singer 40 Toward a Biology of Social Support, 556 shelley e. taylor sally s. dickerson laura cousino klein PART VIII. SPECIFIC COPING APPROACHES 41 Sharing One’s Story: On the Benefits of Writing or Talking About Emotional Experience, 573 kate g. niederhoffer james w. pennebaker 42 Benefit-Finding and Benefit- Reminding, 584 howard tennen glenn affleck 43 Positive Responses to Loss: Perceiving Benefits and Growth, 598 susan nolen-hoeksema christopher g. davis 44 The Pursuit of Meaningfulness in Life, 608 roy f. baumeister kathleen d. vohs 45 Humor, 619 herbert m. lefcourt 46 Meditation and Positive Psychology, 632 shauna l. shapiro gary e. r. schwartz craig santerre 47 Spirituality: Discovering and Conserving the Sacred, 646 kenneth i. pargament annette mahoney PART IX. SPECIAL POPULATIONS AND SETTINGS 48 Positive Psychology for Children: Development, Prevention, and Promotion, 663 michael c. roberts keri j. brown rebecca j. johnson janette reinke 49 Aging Well: Outlook for the 21st Century, 676 gail m. williamson 50 Positive Growth Following Acquired Physical Disability, 687 timothy r. elliott monica kurylo patricia rivera 51 Putting Positive Psychology in a Multicultural Context, 700 shane j. lopez ellie c. prosser lisa m. edwards jeana l. magyar-moe jason e. neufeld heather n. rasmussen xiv CONTENTS 52 Positive Psychology at Work, 715 nick turner julian barling anthea zacharatos PART X. THE FUTURE OF THE FIELD 53 Positive Ethics, 731 mitchell m. handelsman samuel knapp michael c. gottlieb 54 Constructivism and Positive Psychology, 745 michael j. mahoney 55 The Future of Positive Psychology: A Declaration of Independence, 751 c. r. snyder shane j. lopez with contributions from Lisa Aspinwall Barbara L. Fredrickson Jon Haidt Dacher Keltner Christine Robitschek Michael Wehmeyer Amy Wrzesniewski Author Index, 769 Subject Index, 793

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