Personal Development, Health and Physical Education K-6

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Summary of Personal Development, Health and Physical Education K-6

Personal Development, Health and Physical Education K-6 Syllabus © 2007 Copyright Board of Studies NSW for and on behalf of the Crown in right of the State of New South Wales. This document contains Material prepared by the Board of Studies NSW for and on behalf of the State of New South Wales. The Material is protected by Crown copyright. All rights reserved. No part of the Material may be reproduced in Australia or in any other country by any process, electronic or otherwise, in any material form or transmitted to any other person or stored electronically in any form without the prior written permission of the Board of Studies NSW, except as permitted by the Copyright Act 1968. School students in NSW and teachers in schools in NSW may copy reasonable portions of the Material for the purposes of bona fide research or study. 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Official Notices BOS 06/07 Board Bulletin Vol 16 No1 (OBOS Job No 2007160) Amended July 2012 in response to the Department of Education and Communities’ strategic approach to management of anaphylaxis­related emergencies. Official Notice BOS 08/13 (OBOS Job No 20121659) Amended July 2013 in response to the Joint Standing Committee on Road Safety’s (Staysafe) Report on Road User Distraction. Official Notice BOS 38/13 (OBOS Job No 20130470) Reprinted September 2014 2007320 20120483 20130470 20140522 Contents Introduction 5 Rationale 6 Aim 8 Objectives 8 Overview of Learning in PDHPE K–6 9 Outcomes 13 Foundation Statements 14 Overview of Outcomes 16 Values and Attitudes Outcomes 17 Skills Outcomes 18 Knowledge and Understanding Outcomes 19 Outcomes and Indicators 20 Content 35 Overview of Content 36 K–6 36 Early Stage 1 38 Stage 1 40 Stage 2 42 Stage 3 44 Beyond Stage 3 46 Implications for Teaching and Learning in PDHPE 47 General Principles for Planning, Programming, Assessing Reporting and Evaluating 49 Glossary 57 K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE Introduction Personal Development, Health and Physical Education is one of the six key learning areas in the NSW primary curriculum. This syllabus makes a unique contribution to the total school curriculum in that it is directly concerned with supporting the development of the student as a whole person. Its implementation has the potential to contribute to improved and ongoing quality of life for all individuals within the community. This syllabus replaces the K–6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Syllabus and Support Document, Formal Consultation Draft, 1992. It incorporates elements of the Physical Activity for Health and Fitness Support Document, which was distributed to schools in 1997. This syllabus is based on a broad notion of health that encompasses all aspects of an individual’s wellbeing, inclusive of social, mental, physical and spiritual health. It is concerned with developing in students the knowledge and understanding, skills, values and attitudes that will enable them to lead healthy and fulfilling lives. It also provides schools with a curriculum framework for teaching and learning related to the health priorities for young people of drug education, fitness and physical activity, child protection and nutrition. School Personal Development, Health and Physical Education (PDHPE) programs should focus on encouraging students to make informed decisions related to health and physical activity and develop positive attitudes towards a healthy lifestyle. Programs should include participation in regular and varied physical education experiences, which provide the foundation for a lifelong commitment to valuing and leading a healthy lifestyle. They should also include systematic and explicit teaching of personal and social skills to give students a basis for resilience and the resourceful management of their own lives. Student learning in PDHPE will also be enhanced through the use of computer-based technologies. Information technology enables students to locate, access, view and analyse a range of texts, graphics, sounds and images. Students can also use computer technology to design and create information products. The indicators shown in this syllabus include some examples of how students might use different technologies to work towards the achievement of outcomes. The syllabus is designed to give all schools the flexibility to treat sensitive and controversial issues in a manner reflective of their own ethos. While the selection of specific program content and learning approaches is to occur at the school level, learning experiences must be drawn from all strands in each stage. Parents should be involved in decisions about the PDHPE program. This will assist teachers to adjust their programs to accommodate the perspectives of different groups within the community. Parents will also be in a better position to assist in the implementation of the school program and to actively support their child’s learning outside the school environment. The partnership between the school and the home will be most productive when both contribute in a consistent manner to the child’s development of positive health behaviours and attitudes. It is important that students are encouraged to understand their own growth and development within the context of their families and communities. The active participation of parents and students in the planning, implementation and evaluation of programs will assist exploration of different aspects of health as they are understood within different communities and to place teaching and learning in a context that is meaningful and valued by students. While the syllabus has a clear focus on promoting better health for all, it is acknowledged that not all students enjoy the same opportunities in this regard. Social, economic, environmental and political factors are key determinants of health status. Health inequities may be linked to such factors as race, ethnicity, class, gender, disability, sexuality and age. Sensitivity to the circumstances of individual students is essential in designing appropriate PDHPE programs. It is important for teachers, parents and students to understand that improving health is the responsibility of all members of society. 5 K-6 Syllabus Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Rationale In our rapidly changing society there is increasing community awareness of the importance of healthy lifestyles. The resultant good health is characterised by improved quality of life, less sickness and disability, happier personal, family and social experiences and the opportunity to make choices in work and recreation. Individuals lead a healthy lifestyle when they live in a way that allows them the greatest chance of achieving and maintaining mental, physical, social and spiritual wellbeing. When individuals are well informed on health issues and have a sense of control about the decisions they make, they are more likely to experience positive relationships, improved quality of life and less illness. PDHPE programs play a unique role in the development of students’ knowledge, understandings and practical skills that lead to better health. The ability of individuals to adopt a healthy lifestyle may be affected by the social and cultural context in which they live. Student learning is enhanced by an understanding that health is the responsibility of all parts of society. Through promoting the fundamental principles of diversity, social justice and supportive environments, individuals and communities are better able to act for positive health outcomes. Students should be concerned not only about their own health but also about better health for all now and in the future. This is encouraged through raising: concern for the welfare, rights and dignity of all people; understanding of how equity is effected by structures and practices within communities; awareness of disadvantages and actions for their redress; and understanding of how decisions are made and priorities established. PDHPE is an important key learning area within the primary curriculum as it: ■ encourages an understanding and valuing of self and others Students who understand and value themselves as individuals and as members of groups, exercise more control over their own lives. They can identify and appropriately express a range of feelings. They also appreciate that the way they think influences the way they feel. They are open to learning more positive ways of responding to situations. They are therefore able to make more considered choices and are less influenced by immediate circumstances and responses. When students understand and value others, they work more cooperatively in teams and enjoy more stable and satisfying interpersonal relationships. They are also more tolerant and caring members of the community who value difference and respond to others as individuals. Students who understand and value themselves and others are better equipped to respond to change and to overcome adversity. They are also more likely to seek help when they need it. This key learning area provides opportunities for students to form positive attitudes about themselves and others, to communicate effectively, to work cooperatively and to develop and maintain positive relationships. ■ promotes physical activity Students should be physically active every day in as many ways as they can. Health experts agree that all people should accumulate 30 minutes of moderate physical activity each day for health benefits. It is also generally agreed that, in addition, children should engage in more vigorous activity of at least 20 minutes at least 3 times per week. Adolescence is a time when the trend to inactivity is a concern. Efforts to encourage young children to be more active (one hour per day) provides optimum health and allows some scope for reducing activity in later life but still retaining the minimum daily requirement. 6 K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE Regular physical activity is an essential ingredient for the development and maintenance of optimum health. It can improve cardiovascular efficiency and aid efforts to reduce risk factors of coronary heart disease. It is critical for enhancing bone development, controlling obesity and improving psychological health and immune status. The related health and fitness benefits enable the individual to engage in leisure activities and to meet physical work demands without excessive physiological stress. Physical activity is also important in contributing to quality of life. Participation in active pursuits can be an enjoyable, creative and social outlet that has the potential to build esteem. School programs at all levels have a responsibility to encourage the physical growth and development of all students, support the acquisition of movement skills and nurture positive attitudes towards physical activity. This key learning area provides regular and frequent opportunities for students to acquire and apply movement skills, enhance their creativity and aesthetic awareness and develop positive attitudes towards regular physical activity. ■ emphasises informed decision making leading to effective and responsible action Schools can help students to take responsible action regarding their own lifestyle. They can support them in making informed decisions about factors that may hinder or promote the wellbeing of themselves and others. This key learning area builds upon the decision-making skills children have when they first come to school. It provides opportunities for the teaching of decision-making skills and learning through behaviour rehearsal. School programs can assist all students to become more aware of the process that is occurring when decisions are made so that they can increase their knowledge of options available to them and predict likely consequences. To make informed decisions, students also require accurate and appropriate information about issues that are relevant to them. Students are more likely to use strategies developed and learned in the classroom in their own lives if they have been developed and rehearsed over a period of time in simulated situations that are as close as possible to the real-life contexts of the students. For example, refusal skills in drug situations need to be part of the repertoire of students’ responses well ahead of the time when they are exposed to drugs. More specifically the study of PDHPE is concerned with: ■ physical, social, cognitive and emotional growth and development patterns Feelings of self-confidence and self-acceptance and the ability to act in the best interests of themselves and others are fostered by an understanding of the nature of life’s changes and the uniqueness of individual development. ■ the development and maintenance of positive interpersonal relationships Successful interaction with others in contexts such as the family, peer group and teams is essential to meet the individual’s need for belonging and security. Students’ capacity to form relationships and cope with changes in relationships is influenced by understandings and skills in negotiation, conflict resolution, tolerance, roles, responsibilities and community expectations associated with friendships and relationships. ■ the factors influencing personal health choices Young students need clear guidance concerning appropriate health attitudes and behaviours. As students mature they require assistance in discerning between conflicting messages from a range of sources. An understanding of health issues empowers students to make appropriate decisions and commit to adopting sound community values. 7 K-6 Syllabus Personal Development, Health and Physical Education ■ living and learning in a safe secure environment The safety and security of children is enhanced when they can recognise situations where their personal safety may be at risk, and use strategies to protect themselves. When power is used positively in relationships, individuals can support their own and others’ rights to respect and safety. ■ the adoption of an active lifestyle Physical activity habits developed in school years are often maintained in later life. Students need to understand the importance of a balanced lifestyle incorporating regular physical activity for health and fitness. ■ fundamental movement patterns and coordinated actions of the body Children do not naturally develop fundamental movement skills as they grow. Opportunities should be provided for these skills to be taught, practised and encouraged. Having mastery of the Fundamental Movement Skills such as throwing, catching, running and jumping opens up a vast array of sport, leisure and recreation options for the individual. Skills are developed through play, dance, gymnastics, games, sports, aquatics and other recreational activities. The quality of movement is further enhanced through exploring, composing, performing and appreciating movement. ■ skills that enable action for better health and movement outcomes Understanding about health and movement is utilised when students have the necessary ability and self-confidence. The skills of effective communication, interaction, decision making and problem solving and moving with efficiency and confidence empower students to take action leading to better health, improved performance and enhanced self-esteem. Not all students will have the same degree of control over their health. Illness, disability and sociocultural circumstances will have significant impacts on health and the ability to affect change. However, an emphasis on these skills and understandings of those factors that influence health best prepares students to work towards better health for themselves and others. Aim The aim of this syllabus is to develop in each student the knowledge and understanding, skills and values and attitudes needed to lead healthy, active and fulfilling lives. In doing so, the syllabus will form the basis for students to adopt a responsible and productive role in society. Objectives Values and Attitudes Skills Knowledge To develop students’: To develop students’ skills in: To develop students’ knowledge and understanding about: ■ appreciation of and a ■ making, communicating commitment to healthy and acting upon health ■ ways to enhance personal and socially just ways of decisions; and community health and living. wellbeing, and ■ moving with competence and confidence; and ■ the composition, performance and appraisal ■ forming and maintaining of movement. positive relationships. 8 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education K-6 PDHPE Overview of Learning in PDHPE K–6 The following diagram represents the key components of the syllabus. The syllabus content consists of two elements: subject matter and skills. These form the basis for achieving the syllabus aims, objectives and outcomes. Syllabus Aims Objectives Outcomes Indicators SKILLS moving problem-solving communicating Interpersonal Relationship • relationships • communication • families • peers • groups • personal identity • the body • human sexuality • changes • values • non locomotor skills • locomotor skills • manipulative skills • games • athletics • aquatics • playing the games • personal safety • home and rural safety • school and play safety • road safety • water safety • emergency procedures • making decisions Games Safe • nutriton • health services and products • drug use • environmental health • preventive measures • elements of • non locomotor skills • locomotor skills movement • composition • components of an active lifestyle • ways to be active • effects of physical activities • non locomotor skills • locomotor skills • elements of dance • composition • dance styles Growth and Development and Sport Living Personal Health Choices Active Lifestyle Dance Gymnastics interacting decision-making Subject Matter Strand Specific content and learning experiences are selected to achieve the syllabus objectives and outcomes 9 K-6 Syllabus Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Subject Matter The subject matter of PDHPE K–6 is organised into eight interrelated strands. The eight strands are not mutually exclusive. Programs may select subject matter from a number of the eight strands. Particular themes and issues may be revisited in relation to a number of strands to reinforce understandings. In order for students to achieve the outcomes of this syllabus it is essential that teaching/learning occurs in each of the strands in each stage of primary education. Active Lifestyle Active Lifestyle is concerned with students adopting activity patterns that promote their wellbeing. In this strand, students will examine the components of a balanced lifestyle, explore options for recreation and develop the skills and attitudes necessary for an active lifestyle. Dance Dance develops the ability of students to communicate and express themselves through movement. Through dance, students develop awareness of the ways their bodies move, the space in which they move, the time and quality of their movements and their relationship to each other and objects. Students participate in composing, moving and appreciating a range of dance styles. Games and Sports This strand develops each student’s competence and confidence in a broad range of games, sports and physical activities. Students develop fundamental movement skills (FMS), progressing to more games- and sports-specific skills in non-competitive and competitive environments that foster positive feelings of success and enjoyment. Growth and Development Growth and Development involves developing each student’s understanding of their own physical, social, cognitive and emotional development in the context of increasing awareness of changes that occur throughout the cycle of people’s lives. Students participate in activities that increase their confidence and competence to manage change. Gymnastics The focus of this strand is on initial movement exploration leading to the acquisition of some preliminary gymnastics skills. Students investigate and succeed in a wide variety of movement experiences and challenges, developing skill, demonstrating control and exploring the ways in which the body can move. The gymnastics experiences recommended in this syllabus are appropriate for all students. They do not involve Olympic or competitive gymnastics disciplines. Interpersonal Relationships Interpersonal Relationships is concerned with developing an understanding of the nature of relationships. Students develop skills for building positive responsible relationships, and practise their application so that they can use them effectively in their lives. 10 K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE Personal Health Choices Personal Health Choices examines the process of making lifestyle decisions and putting them into practice. This strand considers the personal health decisions that students make about their lives relating to nutrition, hygiene, consumerism, drug use, the environment and disease prevention. Safe Living Safe Living is concerned with the protection of individuals through the promotion of safe environments and practices. This strand focuses on developing in students a commitment and an ability to act in ways that will keep themselves and others safe from harm. Skills There are five essential skills that students should develop from PDHPE. They are: Communicating Students should develop a variety of skills for communicating: being able to express needs, wants, feelings, ideas and opinions; being able to listen attentively and respond appropriately; being able to use negotiation, conflict resolution, refusal and assertiveness skills effectively in a range of situations. Decision Making Students should develop decision-making skills in the context of making healthy personal and lifestyle choices. This involves: making informed decisions; selecting and adopting safe practices; distinguishing between fact and opinion in health matters; accepting responsibility for decisions and resulting consequences; being able to use information gained to inform future decision making; making collective decisions for the common good. Interacting Skills for relating positively to others and the environment include: working cooperatively as a group member; generating and abiding by rules for common benefit; developing and maintaining friendships; offering assistance and encouragement to others; accepting support and assistance. Moving Students develop the ability to: move effectively in response to a variety of stimuli; participate regularly in a range of games and sports; demonstrate mastery of fundamental movement skills such as throwing, catching, kicking, jumping and running; create and perform sequences of movement with variation in movement quality. Problem Solving Students develop problem-solving skills by: gathering relevant information by observing, questioning and researching; generating alternative ways of resolving problems; using a range of problem-solving strategies; selecting the most appropriate solution; identifying people who can assist; carrying out a plan and reflecting on the results. 11 Outcomes Foundation Statements Overview of Outcomes Outcomes and Indicators K-6 Syllabus Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Foundation Statements Foundation Statements set out a clear picture of the knowledge, skills and understanding that each student should develop at each stage of primary school. Early Stage 1 Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity ■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and Relationships Students participate in regular physical activity through creative play, dance, gymnastics and minor games. They practise body movement and control, demonstrating different ways the body can move by composing and sequencing simple movement patterns. Students show awareness and consideration of others during play situations and practise the fundamental movement skills of balance, sprint run, vertical jump and catch. They describe the components of an active lifestyle and identify different ways to be active at school and at home. Students make simple decisions in relation to health and safety and identify medicines and how to store them. They describe balanced eating habits and healthy personal habits as well as safe and unsafe situations at home, on and near roads, travelling to and from school and near water. Students identify people who can help and describe actions such as ‘no, go, tell’ that might be taken in unsafe situations. Students identify personal characteristics and qualities, and physical changes that have occurred since birth and identify different parts of the body. With self-control, students express feelings and develop positive relationships. They interact and communicate with peers in a variety of play and group situations, listening, sharing and showing concern when working with others. Stage 1 Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity ■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and Relationships Students participate and perform in dance, gymnastics, minor games and sports. They complete simple movement sequences that show an understanding of dynamics, spatial awareness, relationships, timing and rhythm of movement. They demonstrate fair play and cooperation in small groups. Students develop proficiency in the fundamental movement skills of the hop, side gallop, skip, overhand throw, kick and two-handed strike. They participate in physical activities that promote enjoyment and recognise the importance of these for health and lifestyle balance. Students describe ways to keep healthy and safe and explore choices relating to food, sun protection and personal safety. They identify the appropriate use, administration and storage of medicines. Students describe strategies to stay safe at home, on and near roads, when travelling to and from school, and near water. They recognise safe and unsafe environments and situations and suggest a range of protective strategies for dealing with unsafe situations. Students describe similarities and differences between themselves and others. They describe different body parts and how the body grows and changes. Students explore different types of relationships and describe the skills needed to develop and maintain positive relationships. They identify the effects of bullying. 14 K-6 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education PDHPE Stage 2 Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity ■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and Relationships Students apply movement skills in dance, gymnastics, games and sports, and practise manipulative skills in a range of minor games. They perform movement sequences with consistency and control and demonstrate cooperation, effort and practice in physical activity. Students demonstrate proficiency in the fundamental movement skills of static balance, sprint run, vertical jump, catch, hop, side gallop, skip and overarm throw through practice and application in different games and sports. They participate in physical activity and investigate how it contributes to a healthy and active lifestyle. Students describe the factors that influence healthy lifestyle decisions and demonstrate an understanding of the decision-making process. They examine how the use of drugs such as tobacco and alcohol can cause harm. They investigate nutritional choices relating to cultural beliefs, special dietary needs and ‘fast food’. Students demonstrate behaviours to stay safe at home, on and near roads, when travelling to and from school, and near water. They demonstrate the capacity to deal with unsafe situations including abuse, bullying and harassment. Students recognise individual strengths and limitations and they identify characteristics that make them unique. They explore body changes that occur during life, including puberty. Students explain how positive relationships are formed and the importance of effective communication of feelings and needs in maintaining relationships. They recognise the rights, values and feelings of others and devise strategies to solve problems, recognise and accept differences and manage conflict. Stage 3 Fundamental Movement and Physical Activity ■ Healthy Choices ■ Self and Relationships Students apply, adapt and vary movement skills in dance, gymnastics, games and sports. They understand the elements of movement and compose and perform movement sequences with control and coordination in various contexts. Students demonstrate teamwork, tactics and strategies when participating in team games. They demonstrate proficiency in the fundamental movement skills of leap, kick, two- handed strike and dodge and apply them in a range of challenging physical activity contexts. Students participate in a range of moderate to vigorous physical activities and apply movement skills with increased confidence and precision. They investigate the effects of physical activity on health and monitor and evaluate physical activity levels. Students examine key factors that contribute to a balanced lifestyle and keeping safe and healthy. They examine nutritional information, disease prevention and the effects of drugs on the body and they identify behaviours that impact on wellbeing. Students assess the safety of situations in home, school, water and road environments and identify appropriate responses. They describe and practise a range of personal safety strategies that could be used in threatening or abusive situations. They take responsibility for personal decisions, recognising the effects that decisions have on self and others. Students describe the factors that influence personal identity and examine the physical, social and emotional changes that occur during puberty. They devise strategies for coping with change, grief and loss. They value the differences between individuals and challenge discrimination and harassment. Students value different roles and responsibilities in relationships, the importance of communication and they practise positive ways to deal with conflict. 15