Process, Product, Personality, Environment & Technology

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Creativity: Creativity: Creativity: Creativity: Creativity: Creativity: Creativity: Creativity: Process, Product, Personality, Process, Product, Personality, Process, Product, Personality, Process, Product, Personality, Process, Product, Personality, Process, Product, Personality, Process, Product, Personality, Process, Product, Personality, Environment & Technology Environment & Technology Environment & Technology Environment & Technology Environment & Technology Environment & Technology Environment & Technology Environment & Technology KIE Conference Book Series KIE Conference Book Series KIE Conference Book Series KIE Conference Book Series Guest Editor Guest Editor Guest Editor Guest Editor Fredricka K. Reisman, PhD Fredricka K. Reisman, PhD Fredricka K. Reisman, PhD Fredricka K. Reisman, PhD President, American Creativity Association President, American Creativity Association President, American Creativity Association President, American Creativity Association IINTERNATIONAL NTERNATIONAL CCONFERENCE ONFERENCE, R , RIGA IGA, L , LATVIA ATVIA, 22 , 22— —25 J 25 JULY ULY 2014 2014 Knowledge, Innovation and Enterprise The 2014 edition of the KIE Conference will be held in Riga, the ‘European Capital City of Culture for 2014’ Confirmed Speakers: • Professor Abhishek Das, Central University, India, and formerly of the Indian Institute of Space Science & Technology, speaks on science innovation—specifically visual analytics/medical image processing and computer vision. • Professor Ruth Alas, Vice‐Rector for Scientific Affairs at the Estonian Business School. Professor Alas, a recipient of CEEMAN Champions’ Award 2011 for Academic Research, presents findings from a pan- European comparative study on entrepreneurship. • Professor Fredricka K. Reisman, President of the America Creativity Association and Drexel/Torrance Centre for Creativity and Innovation, Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA. Professor Reisman speaks on the application of creativity in business. • Professor David Turner, Faculty of Business and Society, University of South Wales, UK, and Treas- urer of the World Councils of Comparative Education Societies, speaks on comparative knowledge- education and innovation. • Dr Dom Heger, Founder & CEO of DHTechnologies, Texas, USA and Dr Alain Beim, Senior Scientist and Project Lead at IBM Research, New York, USA, will speak on Big Data and Enterprise Computing. Papers will be published by in the KIE Conference Book Series and selected papers will be published in the associated journal of the conference—see For details of registration including deadlines, please visit: Knowledge—including knowledge management, comparative knowledge, indigenous knowledge, Knowledge & Education, Knowledge Transfer Part- nerships, Knowledge Utilisation, Patents & Copy- rights and Business & Information Systems. Innovation—including Science Innovation, Tech- nology Innovation including Big Data Analytics and Management/Organisation and Open Innovation. Papers are solicited in most topics or fields within the following and related themes: Creativity—including Themes & Concepts, Busi- ness/Organisational Creativity, Arts, Media & Digital Creativity, Creative Industries & Enterprise, Digital Design & Architectures, Craft & Animation. Enterprise—including entrepreneurship, Marketing & Strategy, HR, Talent & Development, Servant/ Leadership in Enterprise, SME Business Finance, Supply Chain Management, International Business & Management & Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship. Free Seminars for PhD Students & New Academics Free Seminars for PhD Students & New Academics Free Seminars for PhD Students & New Academics • Big Data & Predictive Analytics • Becoming Smart Entrepreneurial Academics • Discussing Your Research Findings • Publishing Your Work—how to get editors on your side Venue: Radisson Blu Daugava—a 5 star hotel— in Riga, Latvia Creativity: Process, Product, Personality, Environment & Technology Guest Editor Fredricka Reisman, PhD CREATIVITY: PRODUCT, PROCESS, PERSONALITY, ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 2 © All rights reserved. You are welcome to copy this publication for scholarly or non- commercial use. Otherwise, no part of this publication may be repro- duced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or other- wise, without permission in writing from the copyright holders. 2013 KIE Conference Books: Creativity: Concepts, Product, Process, Environment & Technology Short Research Papers on Knowledge, Innovation and Enterprise © 2013 International Conference on Knowledge, Innovation & Enterprise © 2013 Individual Authors ISBN 978-1-85924-202-5 Creativity: Process, Product, Personality, Environment & Technology KIE Conference Books CREATIVITY: PRODUCT, PROCESS, PERSONALITY, ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 4 CONTENTS Preface JAMES OGUNLEYE. ‘Strengthening the links in the knowledge, Creativity, Innovation and Enterprise Chain’, 6 Chapter 1 FREDRICKA REISMAN. Introduction to Creativity: Process, Product, Personality, Environment & Technology, 9 Chapter 2 SANDRA I. KAY. Designing Elegant Problems for Creative Thinking, 28 Chapter 3 MICHAEL BROWN & CHRIS WILSON. Between Possibilities and Places: Cognitive Metaphor, Creativity, ART and Education, 37 Chapter 4 CHIMAE CUPSCHALK. Assessing the Reconnection to Creative Strategies in Non- traditional Learners, 47 Chapter 5 MARGARET MURPHY. “Generation Z” and Media & Arts Entrepreneurship Educa- tion: An Investigation of Creative Learning Issues and Opportunities, 58 Chapter 6 NATHAN M. SACHRITZ. Application of Creativity in Enterprise: Risky Creativity, 70 Chapter 7 JAMIE LEITCH & LARRY KEISER. Creativity as a Bridge for Synergizing the Goals of Business and Academia, 77 Chapter 8 CHRIS WILSON & MICHAEL BROWN. Extending Realities: Creativity, Artistry and Technology, 84 Chapter 9 CASSANDRA COSTE & TARA GREY COSTE. The Culturally Competent Creative in Complex Environments, 94 CREATIVITY: PRODUCT, PROCESS, PERSONALITY, ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 5 CONTENTS Chapter 10 TERRI ZOBEL. Empowering Functional Creativity through Creative Lifetime Learning Environments, 103 Chapter 11 DENNIE L. SMITH. Blending Creativity and Problem Solving, 113 Chapter 12 VALERY KEIBLER. The Transformational Decision to be a Creative, 122 Chapter 13 KUAN CHEN TSAI. Creative Teaching and Teaching Excellence, 131 Chapter 14 DIANE ROSEN. What You DON’T Know Can Help: The Role of Uncertainty in Creativity, 140 CREATIVITY: PRODUCT, PROCESS, PERSONALITY, ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 6 PREFACE ‘Strengthening the links in the knowledge, Creativity, Innovation and Enterprise Chain’ The Organising Team of the International Conference on Knowledge, Innovation and Enterprise is enormously delighted to publish this book—Creativity: product, process, personality, environment and technology—as part of the 2013 KIE Conference Book Series. It is also an enormous privilege for us to have a wide range of subject experts led by Dr Fredricka Reisman, to contribute to the book. Creativity is a significant theme of the KIE conference—it sits at the very heart of innovation. Innovation in this context is broadly defined. I have—along with a colleague from IBM—conceptualised innovation in a seminal work as a by-product of creativity (Ogunleye and Tankeh, 2006a; Tankeh and Ogunleye, 2007). At the heart of creativity and innovation is knowledge. But knowledge on its own will not produce a desire result: it requires our abilities, creative abilities to apply that knowledge including our skills and expertise in a variety of contexts—both to familiar and unfamiliar situations—in a way that creates or adds value (see for also Ogunleye, 2009, 2008, 2006b, 2006c, 2002a, 2002b, 2001, 2000). Creativity theorists such as Teresa Amabile (1983) and Joy Paul Guilford (1950, 1987) have demonstrated the importance of some of these domain-specific skills sets— including creative thinking and problem solving skills—that are involved in the process of creativity and innovation. Terri Zobel also highlights some of these skills sets elsewhere in this book. However, creating or adding value to a product or service or taking the out- come of innovation to the marketplace is an art of enterprise—something that is relished by every entrepreneur. So, our mission at the KIE Conference is to pro- vide a platform for stakeholders in the fields to not only to cross-fertilise ideas or test potential of their ideas, but more importantly to join hands with us to strengthen—and stiffing—the knowledge, creativity, innovation and enterprise chain as we seek out new ways to galvanise our global economies. Finally, I’m grateful to Dr Reisman for her hard work in editing this book and also to all the authors in creating time from their very busy schedules to contribute to this volume. Thank you so much. James Ogunleye, PhD, FRSA Chairman, 2013 KIE Conference & Data Nubes Big Data Analytics Symposium and Roundtable CREATIVITY: PRODUCT, PROCESS, PERSONALITY, ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 7 References Amabile, T. M. (1983) The social psychology of creativity. New York: Springer-Verlag. Guilford, J. P. (1950) Creativity. American Psychologist, Vol. 5, pp. 444-454. Guilford, J. P. (1987) Creativity research: Past, present and future. In S. G. Isaksen (Ed.), Frontiers of creativity research: Beyond the basics (pp. 33-65). Buffalo, NY: Bearly. Ogunleye, J. (2009) College leaders’ conception of creativity and its application to English further education, Occasional Papers in Education and Lifelong Learning: An International Journal, Vol. 3, Nos1-2, pp.165-188. Ogunleye, J. (2008) Innovation and creativity in the curriculum: An American study, Occa- sional Papers in Education and Lifelong Learning, Vol. 2, pp.131-153. London: Middlesex University, ISBN 978-85924-241-4. Ogunleye, J. and Tankeh, A. (2006a) Creativity and innovation in IT Industry: an assess- ment of trends in research and development expenditures and funding with particular refer- ence to IBM, HP, Dell, Sun, Fujitsu and Oracle, Journal of Current Research in Global Business, vol. 9, 14, pp 75-85, Fall 2006. Ogunleye, J. (2006b). A review and analysis of assessment objectives of academic and voca- tional qualifications in English further education, with particular reference to creativity. Journal of Education & Work, 19(1), 95-104. Ogunleye, J. (2006c) ‘Creative training techniques and their benefits’, in Reddy, S (ed) Creativity in Training: Ideas with Impact, ICFAI University Press: Hyderabad, India. Ogunleye, J. (2002a) Creative approaches to raising achievement of adult learners in English further education, Journal of Further and Higher Education, Vol. 26 [2] pp173-181. Ogunleye, J. (2002b) Teachers’ perceptions of constraints to creativity in the further educa- tion curriculum, LSRN Conference Proceeding CD-ROM. London: Learning Skills Develop- ment Agency. Ogunleye, J. (2001) Creativity training techniques: how to spell success in creative organi- sations, Training Journal, January, pp21-23. Ogunleye, J. (2000) Facilitating creativity in further education: A key to improving Reten- tion in 16-19 full-time courses, Goldsmiths Journal of Education, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp 13-24. Tankeh, A. and Ogunleye, J. (2007) The Server Market: Innovation, Competitive Perform- ance and Optimal Strategy in the face of ‘Disruptive Innovation’, Conference Proceedings (Peer- Reviewed), 19th Annual Conference of the Association for Global Business, Nov 15-18, 2007, Wash- ington DC, USA. CREATIVITY: PRODUCT, PROCESS, PERSONALITY, ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 8 CREATIVITY: PRODUCT, PROCESS, PERSONALITY, ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 9 111 FREDRICKA REISMAN INTRODUCTION TO CREATIVITY: PROCESS, PRODUCT, PERSONALITY, ENVIRONMENT & TECHNOLOGY Nationally and internationally, integration of creativity theories and research within academic and corporate settings is accelerating. Creativity and innovation in thinking, problem solving, and enhancing life in general is evidenced in books (Tanner & Reisman, in press; Pink, 2005; Florida, 2002, 2010; Torrance and Reis- man, 2004a, 2004b; Reisman and Torrance, 2005), the media, and corporate envi- ronments. A 2010 IBM study, based on face-to-face conversations with more than 1,500 chief executive officers worldwide, identified creativity as the most impor- tant leadership quality of the future. “Creative leaders invite disruptive innovation, encourage others to drop outdated approaches and take balanced risks. They are open-minded and inventive in expanding their management and communication styles…” (IBM Institute for Business Value, 2010). The 2013 Knowledge, Innova- tion & Enterprise global conference that crosses disciplines and “strengthens the links in the knowledge, creativity, innovation and enterprise chain” (conference url) is unlike any other as described next from the conference communication: There has been a number of annual international conferences on innova- tion, entrepreneurship (not enterprise) and knowledge transfer in recent years, but none has really attempted to provide a common, fertile global platform for practitioners and subject experts in the fields to cross- fertilise ideas and provide insights into emerging issues and challenges. The International Conference on Knowledge, Innovation and Enterprise (KIE Conference) fills this gap. Creativity: Process, Product, Personality, Environment & Technology The Creativity: Process, Product, Personality, Environment & Technology section of the conference has yielded an eclectic group of papers that are reflective of Knowl- edge, Innovation and Enterprise. Sandra Kay presents six characteristics of an Ele- gant Problem followed by Brown and Wilson’s discussion of the interactive power CREATIVITY: PRODUCT, PROCESS, PERSONALITY, ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 10 of synthesizing music and art to enhance creative expression. Chimae Cupschalk focuses on nontraditional learners applying the Metiri rubric as a centerpiece of this heavily qualitative research. Margaret Murphy presents an excellent review of literature on entrepreneurship with young folk, while Nathan Sachritz presents both business and nonbusiness settings for risk as a creative strategy. Leitch and Keiser use creativity to bridge corporate and educational Knowledge, Innovation and Enterprise, while describing an international creativity organization as the vehicle for corporate-academic friction. Wilson and Brown pose the following questions about creativity, technology and artistry that form the structure of this paper: As creative practitioners and artists, how should we approach the use of technology? In what way is technology mediating or inhibiting creativity? And, how might technology and the arts help to inform our understanding of what it is to create and to be creative? The authors incorporate historical words of wisdom from great artists (Picasso), philosophers (Plato, Aldous Huxley) and the Greeks and Romans. The tension among art, technologies and play is an added bonus. Coste and Coste discuss the fit between individuals and their surroundings; the interplay between creativity and person, culture, and environment. Terri Zobel presents an impressive list of steps for building teams and ground rules/activities. She also incorporates many of the leading creativity researchers into her paper. Dennie Smith presents a kaleidoscope as a metaphor for his 5-step problem-solving model. He suggests that the physical presence of the objects, models, and/or pho- tos will also impact the overall utility of the metaphor in serving as direct or indi- rect influence on creativity and problem solving. Keibler’s study investigated the process used by individuals to identify potential fields in which to be creative and personal self-realization of the emergence of unique creative activity. She creates the ME-Zone Theory, which resulted from the grounded theory methodology of her qualitative research. The main purpose of Kuan Chen Tsai’s article was to sur- vey related literature and promote creative teaching in the classroom. The author focuses on three topics. First, the perspective of creative teaching is outlined. Sec- ond, modeling creative behavior is described. Third, practical guides for creative teaching are suggested. Finally, Diane Rosen states: Domain-knowledge supplies nec- essary raw material but is not sufficient for creativity, which depends heavily on heuristics or the way knowledge is combined. If creativity is about surprise, not predictability, and is fu- eled by its very indeterminacy, how might we develop those conditions that allow creative capacities to flourish? Rosen presents interactive approaches that use uncertainty to increase creative potential. Introduction to Creativity as a Venue for Research and Study Contrary to some belief, Creativity and Innovation are not interchangeable. Creativ- ity generates novel ideas and innovation implements these ideas. Creativity is the 111 FREDRICKA REISMAN 11 ability to come up with a new idea, process, or product. The people and compa- nies that are innovative are able to harness those creative ideas and bring them to market in a profitable manner. However, many well paid innovation consultants and organizations focus initially on innovation (e.g., 2010 World Innovation Fo- rum held in New York City with headquarters in New York, London, Manchester and Singapore) demonstrating the need for “consultant education.” These consult- ants are supposed to be leading, coaching and creating what Florida refers to as the “Creative class.” According to Richard Florida, Professor of Business and Creativity at the Rot- man School of Management, University of Toronto., a visiting fellow at the Brook- ings Institution and a columnist for Information Week, there is a rise in the creative class in America, a class he defined as “a fast-growing, highly educated, and well- paid segment of the workforce on whose efforts corporate profits and economic growth increasingly depend. Florida asserts that the creative class includes “creative professionals who work in a wide range of knowledge-intensive industries such as high-tech sectors, financial services, the legal and healthcare professions, and business management. These people engage in creative problem-solving, drawing on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.” On the other hand, in an interview for a Newsweek article entitled “The Crea- tivity Crisis,” Kyung Hee Kim at the College of William & Mary, after analyzing almost 300,000 scores of children and adults on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, asserted that since 1990, creativity scores have consistently inched downward (Bronson and Merryman, 2010). For years there has been an interest by universities to offer, at least, one course dealing with creativity (e.g., a course in creativity studies offered at universities in North America, Europe, Japan, and China that occur in a variety of disciplines). However, only one other university offers a masters degree in creative studies; namely, Buffalo State. The Drexel University online Masters of Science degree in Creativity and Innovation expands master’s level work from the idea-generating phase to the implementation phase (the innovation phase), and prepares participat- ing students to think and act as creative professionals. J. P. Guilford’s 1950 presidential address to the American Psychological Asso- ciation inspired resurgence in the field of creativity research. It is now 63 years since that call for creativity research in which Guilford’s delineation of creativity attributes moved the field from vague notions of creativity to distinct constructs that describe creative thinking. These constructs included fluency, flexibility, nov- elty, synthesis, analysis, reorganization and redefinition, complexity, and elabora- tion. Guilford’s address provided the vague concept of creativity with scope, depth, and breadth that could be measured and studied, and led to exploration of Personal Creativity Characteristics shown in Table 1. Although we have come a long way, the path is still open to new and challenging research studies and applica- CREATIVITY: PRODUCT, PROCESS, PERSONALITY, ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY 12 tions. Table 1: Four Categories of Personal Creativity Characteristics and Examples Adapted from: Assessing Creativity: A Guide for Educators ( Many definitions of creativity reflect its complexity and multi-faceted nature. Table 2 illustrates the diversity of creativity definitions from the literature. Creativity Characteristic Example Divergent Thinking fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, and metaphorical thinking Convergent or Critical Thinking analyzing, synthesizing, reorgan- izing or redefining, evaluating, seeing relationships, desiring to resolve ambiguity or bringing order to disorder, and preferring complexity or understanding complexity Personality traits that relate to one’s interests, experiences, attitudes, and self-confidence problem sensitivity, aesthetic sensitivity, curiosity, sense of humor, playfulness, fantasy and imagination, risk-taking, toler- ance for ambiguity, tenacity, openness to experience, emo- tional sensitivity, adaptability, intuition, willingness to grow, unwillingness to accept authori- tarian assertions without critical examination, and integration of dichotomies or opposites. Traits that involve a personal understanding of who you are, a vision of where you want to go, and a commitment to do what- ever it takes to get there Awareness of creativeness, per- sistence or perseverance, self- direction, internal locus of con- trol, introspective, freedom from stereotyping, concentra- tion, energy, and work ethic 111 FREDRICKA REISMAN 13 Table 2a: Creativity Theorists and Their View of Creativity Theorist Creativity Definition Amabile Involves an interaction of three components: domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant skills, and task motivation. Domain-Relevant Skills include knowledge about the domain, technical skills, and special domain-related talent. Creativity-Relevant Skills include work- ing styles, thinking styles, and personality traits. The Task Motivation dimension in- volves the desire to do something for its own sake, or based on the interest in the activity by a particular person at a particular point in time. Erich Fromm The creative attitude requires the capacity to be puzzled, the ability to concentrate, the ability to experience oneself as the initiator of ideas and actions, and the ability to accept, rather than to avoid, conflict or tension. Howard Gardner One who regularly solves problems, fashions products, or defines new questions in a domain in a way that is initially considered novel but that ultimately becomes accepted in a particular cultural setting. William J. J. Gordon Emphasizes the use of metaphor and anal- ogy for "connection-making,” coining the Greek word synectics, which refers to the joining together of different and appar- ently irrelevant elements. J. P. Guilford Emphasized that "problem solving and creative thinking are closely related in that creative thinking produces novel outcomes, and problem solving involves producing a new response to a new situation, which is a novel outcome" (Guilford, 1977, p. 161). Guilford emphasized: sensitivity to prob- lems, fluency, flexibility, novelty, synthe- sis, reorganization or redefinition, com- plexity, and evaluation. In Guilford’s Structure of Intellect Model creativity has usually been associated with the mental operation described as divergent produc- tion.

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