Project Time Management

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Summary of Project Time Management

Team FME Project Time Management ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 Project Skills Copyright Notice © 2014. All Rights Reserved ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 The material contained within this electronic publication is protected under International and Federal Copyright Laws and treaties, and as such any unauthorized reprint or use of this material is strictly prohibited. You may not copy, forward, or transfer this publication or any part of it, whether in elec- tronic or printed form, to another person, or entity. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work without the permission of the copy- right holder is against the law. Your downloading and use of this eBook requires, and is an indication of, your complete acceptance of these ‘Terms of Use.’ You do not have any right to resell or give away part, or the whole, of this eBook. ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 1 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT Table of contents Preface 2 Visit Our Website 3 About this Knowledge Area 4 Introduction 5 The PMBOK® Project Time Management Processes 7 6.1 Plan Schedule Management 7 6.1.1 Plan Schedule Management: Inputs 8 6.1.2 Plan Schedule Management: Tools and Techniques 9 6.1.3 Plan Schedule Management: Outputs 10 6.2 Define Activities 11 6.2.1 Define Activities: Inputs 12 The PMBOK® Project Scope Management Processes 13 6.2.2 Define Activities: Tools and Techniques 14 6.2.3 Define Activities: Outputs 19 6.3 Sequence Activities 20 6.3.1 Sequence Activities: Inputs 22 6.3.2 Sequence Activities: Tools and Techniques 23 6.3.3 Sequence Activities: Outputs 27 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources 28 6.4.1 Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs 28 6.4.2 Estimate Activity Resources: Tools and Techniques 30 6.4.3 Estimate Activity Resources: Outputs 31 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations 33 6.5.1 Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs 34 6.5.2 Estimate Activity Durations: Tools and Techniques 36 6.5.3 Estimate Activity Durations: Outputs 40 6.6 Develop Schedule 41 6.6.1 Develop Schedule: Inputs 42 6.6.2 Develop Schedule: Tools and Techniques 43 6.6.3 Develop Schedule: Outputs 52 6.7 Control Schedule 55 6.7.1 Control Schedule: Inputs 56 6.7.2 Control Schedule: Tools and Techniques 57 6.7.3 Control Schedule: Outputs 60 Summary 62 Other Free Resources 65 References 66 ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 2 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT Preface This eBook describes the process of time management in projects. Most project man- agement software programs will help you with time management however they are no substitute for being able to identify activities, sequence them and estimate the time and resources required to complete them. You will learn: ● The six project time management processes ● How to draw a network diagram ● The principle of rolling wave planning ● How to estimate the resources and duration of your project ● The principles of float and resource leveling The Free Management eBooks ‘Project Skills’ series are structured around the ten key knowledge areas of project management detailed in the ‘Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK® Guide)—Fifth Edi- tion, Project Management Institute Inc., 2013’. ISBN-13: 978-1935589679. The eBooks in this series follow the structure of the PMBOK® Guide because it repre- sents a tried and tested framework. We have tried to ensure full alignment of our eBooks with the Guide by using the numbering convention as well as the naming convention. If you need more detailed explanation of a particular subject then you can simply refer to the related chapter and paragraph number in the PMBOK® Guide. Remember, many of the generic project management methodologies available refer to the PMBOK® Guide as a basic framework. A knowledge of the PMBOK® processes will go a long way towards giving you an under- standing of almost any project management methodology that your organization may use. ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 3 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT Visit our Website More free management eBooks (FME) along with a series of essential templates and checklists for managers are all available to download free of charge to your computer, iPad, or Amazon Kindle. The FME online library offers you over 100 free resources for your own professional de- velopment. Our eBooks, Checklists, and Templates are designed to help you with the management issues you face every day. We are adding new titles every month, so don’t forget to check our website regularly for the latest releases. Visit ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 4 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT about this Knowledge area Project Time Management includes processes required to manage the timely comple- tion of the project. It involves determining the delivery dates and milestones whilst tak- ing all of the known constraints into account. The PMBOK ‘ Project Time Management’ knowledge includes 7 of the 47 process groups recognized by the PMBOK. Process Project Group Key Deliverables 6.1 Plan Schedule Management Planning Schedule Management Plan 6.2 Define Activities Activity List Activity Attributes 6.3 Sequence Activities Project Schedule Network Diagrams 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources Activity Resource Requirements Resource Breakdown Structure 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations Activity Duration Estimates 6.6 Develop Schedule Schedule Baseline Project Schedule 6.7 Control Schedule Monitoring and Controlling Work Performance Information Schedule Forecasts The first six processes take place iteratively because it is most effective when all six have been determined at a high level and then refined until the point where sufficient detail to execute the task is reached. Generally speaking the level of detail needed is proportional to the level of risk and un- certainty associated with the activity. For this reason time management planning should be carried out with the input of the project team that is going to actually do the work. Project Time Management Defi ne Milestones Determine Delivery Dates ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 5 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT This ensures that the sequencing and activity duration estimates are as realistic as pos- sible as just as importantly, that the team feel as though have some ownership of them rather than seeing them as something that has been imposed on them. introduction Project time management is sometimes seen as the core discipline of project manage- ment and some software tools focus almost exclusively on this aspect. This process group is a logical way of taking the project plan and creating a sequence and schedule for producing the project deliverables. It is required through all phases of the project lifecycle. It is normally derived a high level during the initiation phase in order to provide a framework in which the project plan can evolve as the project iterates between planning, execution and monitoring. Meetings are where most decisions occurs Effective Chair Agenda Collective Decision Making is key for Project success Project Meetings must have Clear & Single Aim Timed defi ned items Retains control Everyone contributes Collective decision-making is very important area of project management that the PM- BOK does not go into any detail about but which can make or break this part of the proj- ect. Almost all of the processes that form part of project time management will involve meetings between the project manager, the team and other stakeholders in order to make decisions about the activity definitions and associated estimates. How well these meetings are conducted will have a major impact on how smoothly the project runs. ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 6 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT These meetings need to have a clear agenda and a chairman who can keep them running on schedule. If you do not take steps to make this happen then these meetings can easily become bogged down and fail to produce the required outputs when they are needed. When estimating work it is inevitable that there will be disagreements about the time re- quired and the resources needed. People will have different opinions of how much effort is involved to complete an activity based on similar work they have undertaken in the past. This type of disagreement is to be expected and only becomes a problem when discus- sions are allowed to drag on beyond the point when a ‘reasonable’ estimate could be made. For example, Early on in this process it really does not matter if an estimate for an activity duration is 5 days or 8 days. This is something that will become clear once the work starts. A good chairman working to a properly timed agenda can ensure that ‘good enough’ decisions are made in a timely manner and that project team members are not left idle because the planning process is overrunning. If you feel as though your project meetings could be improved then you can download the ‘Meeting Skills’ eBooks from htm. These free eBooks cover all aspects of meetings including how to set an agenda that will ensure that the meeting achieves it’s aims and how to chair a meeting so that it is as productive as possible. The project time management processes are described in detail in the remainder of this eBook. 6.1 Schedule Management Plan ‘Planning the Work’ ‘Working the Plan’ 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 7 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT The PMBOK® Project Time Management Processes The seven PMBOK Project Time Management Processes are iterative outputs may be refined as the project progresses. ● 6.1 Plan Schedule Management ● 6.2 Define Activities ● 6.3 Sequence Activities ● 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources ● 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations ● 6.6 Develop Schedule ● 6.7 Control Schedule These are dealt with in detail in the following chapters of this eBook. 6.1 Plan Schedule Management The aim of this process is to establish the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule. Before the 5th Edition PMBOK® Guide, there was no time management process which covered the creation of this plan, which was done as part of the Integration Manage- ment knowledge area under the Develop Project Management Plan process. The inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of this process are summarized in the table below. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs Project Management Plan Expert Judgment Schedule Management Plan Project Charter Analytical Techniques Enterprise Environmental Factors Meetings Organizational Process Assets ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 8 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT 6.1.1 Plan Schedule Management: Inputs This process requires the following inputs: Project Management Plan The main component used is the scope baseline developed in the Project Scope Man- agement Process. This includes the project scope statement and the work breakdown structure (WBS) details used for defining activities, duration estimation, and schedule management. In addition, other scheduling related cost, risk, and communications decisions from the project management plan will also be needed to develop the schedule. Project Charter This will give the high-level time constraints and the list of critical milestones to be achieved on the project, some of which may actually be tied to project approval require- ments. For example, the final delivery date may be fixed. Enterprise Environmental Factors The main consideration is probably going to be the project management software used to create the schedule but other factors include, the organizational culture and structure, resource availability and skills that may influence schedule planning, and any productiv- ity information that is applicable. Organizational Process Assets The main consideration will be the historical information on prior similar projects that can be used to help estimate the schedule, but other factors include the monitoring and reporting tools, schedule control tools, and any existing formal and informal schedule control related policies, procedures, templates and guidelines. ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 9 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT 6.1.2 Plan Schedule Management: Tools and Techniques There are three interrelated techniques that can be used. Meetings Analytical Techniques Expert Judgement Expert Judgment This can involve any member of the project management team with expertise in schedul- ing, particularly in the domain area of the project. Analytical Techniques This may involve choosing strategic options to estimate and schedule the project such as: scheduling methodology, scheduling tools and techniques, estimating approaches, formats, and project management software. The analytical techniques that can be used with specific reference to the schedule include: 1. Schedule compression 2. Rolling wave planning 3. Leads and lags 4. Alternatives analysis 5. Reviewing schedule performance Analytical Techniques Leads & Lags Reviewing Schedule Performance Alternative Analysis Schedule Compression Rolling Wave Planning ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 10 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT These techniques are not actually used in this process, because the schedule itself has not been developed at this point. This is simply a list of tools and techniques that can be used later on in the scheduling processes. Meetings These involve people who are responsible for scope management including the project manager, the project sponsor, selected project team members, selected stakeholders, any- one with responsibility for any of the time management processes, and others as needed. 6.1.3 Plan Schedule Management: Outputs This process will create the following output: Schedule Management Plan This is a component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule. Element of Plan Description of Element Process Project Model Schedule Development Specifies scheduling methodology and scheduling tool to be used. 6.3 Sequence Activities 6.6 Develop Schedule Level of accuracy Acceptable range of accuracy of activity duration estimates. 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations Units of measure For each resource, units are defined. 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources Organizational procedures links WBS is used as framework in order to provide consistency with estimates. 6.2 Define Activities Project schedule model maintenance Process used to update status and record progress. 6.7 Control Schedule Control thresholds Amount of variance in schedule perfor- mance allowed before action is taken. 6.7 Control Schedule Rules of performance measurement Earned value measurement (EVM) rules are set. 6.7 Control Schedule Reporting formats Formats, frequency of schedule progress reports. 6.7 Control Schedule Process descriptions Descriptions of each schedule management process. ALL ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 11 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT It sets up the framework for all of the other time management processes as follows. It may be formal or informal, with a level of detail based upon the needs of the project. 6.2 Define activities The purpose of this process is to identify the specific tasks needed to be done in order to produce the project’s deliverables. This needs to be done in sufficient detail to estimate what resources and time will be required to complete them. The main inputs are the scope baseline consisting of the approved project scope statement, the work breakdown structure, and the WBS dictionary. to produce project deliverables so that resources & time can be estimated identifi es tasks required Defi ne Activities This process uses decomposition to take the work packages identified in the WBS, which are nouns, and to identify the activities (which are verbs) required in order to complete them. It is essentially the bridge between the planning involved in scope management, and the planning involved in time or schedule management. The inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of this process are summarized in the table below. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs Schedule Management Plan Decomposition Activity List Scope Baseline Rolling Wave Planning Activity Attributes Enterprise Environmental Factors Expert Judgment Milestone List Organizational Process Assets ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 12 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT 6.2.1 Define Activities: Inputs This process requires the following inputs: Schedule Management Plan A key input from the schedule management plan is the prescribed level of detail neces- sary to manage the work. Scope Baseline The scope baseline is a component of the project management plan. It is made up of: ● The scope statement, which includes the products scope description of the proj- ect deliverables and defines the product user acceptance criteria. ● The work breakdown structure, which defines each deliverable and the decompo- sition of the deliverable into work packages. ● The WBS dictionary, which contains a detailed description of work and technical documentation for each WBS element. Enterprise Environmental Factors These are used as an input for many planning processes. The PMBOK definition reads as follows: ‘Enterprise environmental factors refer to both internal and external factors that surround or influence a project’s success. These factors may come from any or all of the enterprises involved in the project. Enterprise environmen- tal factors may enhance or constrain project management options and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome. They are considered as inputs to most planning processes.’ Enterprise Environmental Factors • Organizational Processes • Industry Standards • Organizational Culture & Structure • Infrastructure & Resources • Internal & External conditions ISBN 978-1-62620-981-3 © 13 ProjecT TiMe ManageMenT The PMBOK® Project Scope Management Processes These factors include things like: ● Organizational Processes—For example: personnel administration policies are considered because your company may have a limit on how many permanent staff can be assigned to a particular project or policies regarding the use of con- tract staff. ● Industry Standards—For example: industry standards, legal requirements and product standards. ● Organizational Culture and Structure—For example: guidelines for hiring, firing, and performance reviews. ● Infrastructure and resources—For example: project management information systems, software tools, available skills and expertise, standardized cost estimat- ing data and risk databases. ● Internal and external conditions—For example: the risk tolerances of the project stakeholders, market conditions relevant to the project and the political climate. Organizational Process Assets These are the processes or process-related assets that can be used to help this project succeed. They can be grouped into two categories: 1. Processes and procedures for conducting work, and 2. A corporate knowledge base for storing and retrieving information. Examples, The organization might have its own guidelines, policies, and procedures, whose effect on the project must be considered. The knowledge and experience gained from previous projects—this would typically include: documents, templates, policies, procedures, plans, guide- lines, lesson learned, historical data and information, earned value, estimat- ing, risk etc. These assets would typically include: documents, templates, policies, procedures, plans, guidelines, lesson learned, historical data and information, earned value, estimating, risk etc.

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