A guide for the Year 1-10 resources Navigating the journey: Relationships and sexuality education Te takahi i te ara: Te mātauranga mō ngā hononga tāngata me te hōkakatanga YEAR 1-10 familyplanning.org.nz ii familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources Family Planning is a not-for-profit, non-government organisation, providing sexual and reproductive health services through education and health promotion, clinical services, resource development and information, professional training, research, and advocacy. Family Planning gratefully acknowledges all those involved in the creation, of this resource. Published by: Family Planning 2018, revised 2021. ISBN: 978-0-9951449-1-0 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior permission of the publisher, except pages intended for teacher use. Copies of this resource are available from: http://www.familyplanning.org.nz/resources Family Planning acknowledges with gratitude the creators and copyright owners of websites and resources linked to in these resources. Illustrations by Nikki Slade Robinson. Ka puāwai, ka hiki ki te haere A blossoming takes place, a journey is set out on 1 Contents familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources What is the purpose of this resource? 3 What is relationships and sexuality education? 3 Research on sexuality education 5 Sexuality education and the health and physical education learning area 6 Achievement objectives and learning intentions 6 Underlying concepts 6 How are the Navigating the journey Te takahi i te ara resources structured? 8 Year levels and curriculum levels 8 Themes and activities 8 Teacher tips 9 Relationships and sexuality education and the metaphor of navigation 10 Planning your relationships and sexuality education programme 13 Planning at the whole-school level 13 Community engagement 13 Parental consent 13 Being inclusive and valuing diversity 14 Establishing positive learning environments 14 Effective pedagogy 15 Answering student questions 15 Student disclosure of abuse or assault 18 Assessing learning 18 2 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources Digital safety 18 Pornography 19 Consent 20 Multi-level and modern learning environments 20 References 21 Appendix 22-28 3 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources What is the purpose of this resource? The purpose of this resource is to provide key information for the delivery of relationships and sexuality education in primary and secondary schools in Aotearoa New Zealand. It supports the use of the Navigating the journey Te takahi i te ara resources for students in Years 1 to 10. At Family Planning, we believe that all people have the right to: • honest, accurate, and age-appropriate information about sexuality • an awareness and understanding of sexual feelings • the opportunity to clarify their own values and understand those of others • access to good health care services • lifelong learning about sexuality as a natural and positive part of living. This philosophy allows us the freedom to reach our potential as human beings. Navigating the journey Te takahi i te ara resources helps realise the philosophy of Family Planning by supporting schools and other education settings to deliver comprehensive, age-appropriate, and engaging education about relationships, sexuality and sexual wellness. It suggests learning activities that are aligned with the intent of the health and physical education learning area of The New Zealand Curriculum and the Ministry of Education’s guidelines. We encourage you to select from and adapt the activities to suit the learning needs of your students and your wider school community. What is relationships and sexuality education? Relationships and sexuality education (although still referred to as sexuality education in the curriculum) is one of seven key areas of learning in health and physical education. It aims to provide students with the knowledge, understandings, and skills to develop positive attitudes towards sexuality and to enhance their interpersonal relationships. An effective sexuality education programme provides students with the knowledge, understandings, and skills to develop positive attitudes towards sexuality and to enhance interpersonal relationships. It encourages students to enjoy their sexuality, have safe and fulfilling relationships, and take responsibility for their own and others’ sexual health and wellbeing. 4 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources The Education Review Office (2007b) has identified that schools with effective programmes spend at least 12–15 hours per year on sexuality education. Visit Family Planning’s website to learn more about what relationships and sexuality education. 5 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources Research on sexuality education Research on sexuality education is based upon New Zealand and international research about why relationships and sexuality education (RSE) is important and how it should be delivered in schools. As you plan the RSE programme for your classroom or school, it is important to keep the following messages in mind: • Programmes should be holistic and taught by informed teachers • Māori students thrive when their culture is valued. Teachers require support to challenge their attitudes and teaching practice in relation to Māori students • A positive view of sexual development is essential • Programmes need to be connected with students’ lives, relevant, interactive, and student-centred • It is important to allocate sufficient time to the sexuality programme; at least 12–15 hours per year in years 1–10 and provide intensive courses for senior secondary programmes • Young people who identify as non-heterosexual, transgender, and gender diverse face many challenges in the school setting, including feeling marginalised and isolated. They face greater barriers than others in accessing health care • Current issues that need to be included are: consent and coercion; the sexualisation of young people; the effects of pornography; and examining heteronormativity (the bias that opposite sex relationships are normal). Young people’s perspectives and views need to be given a voice • Social and emotional learning and violence prevention education are vital for young people to be able to engage positively and critically in a fast-changing, globalised world. Relationships and sexuality education provides a context for exploring communication, assertiveness, problem-solving, and decision-making within a range of relationships, including those with friends, whānau, the local and national community, and people we meet online. 6 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources Sexuality education and the health and physical education learning area The New Zealand Curriculum sets out the expectation that schools will develop health education programmes that enable students to “develop competencies for … reproductive health and positive sexuality” (p. 23). As well as this specific reference to sexuality education, health education programmes are expected to help students: …build resilience through strengthening their personal identity and sense of self-worth, through managing change and loss, and through engaging in responsible decision making. They learn to demonstrate empathy, and they develop skills that enhance relationships. Students use these skills and understandings to take critical action to promote personal, interpersonal, and societal well-being. (p. 23) Achievement objectives and learning intentions Relationships and Sexuality education - A guide for teachers, leaders, and boards of trustees sets out suggested learning intentions that derive from the strands and achievement objectives for the health and physical education learning area. It does so in relationship to three foci: • Ko au – All about me • Ko aku hoa – Friendships and relationships with others • Ko tōku ao – Me and the world Each of the activities in the Navigating the journey Te takahi i te ara resources are designed to help support learning towards one or more of these learning intentions. You will find tables summarising these connections in the introduction to each resource. Underlying concepts Four inter-related concepts underpin learning in health and physical education. The learning activities include connections to the underlying concepts and demonstrate how they are being developed. The concept of hauora reminds us of the importance of taking the holistic approach to sexuality education captured in Mason Durie’s (1994) Te Whare Tapa Whā model of health and wellbeing. The whare has four sides: taha tinana (physical wellbeing), taha hinengaro (mental and emotional wellbeing), taha whānau (social wellbeing), and taha wairua (spiritual wellbeing). 7 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources The socio-ecological perspective encourages us to think about the social and cultural influences on how we learn about and express our sexuality. For example, our feelings, values, and beliefs about gender roles, sexual orientations, and attractiveness are strongly influenced by our whānau and community and the expectations expressed through the media and legal system. Health promotion is about ensuring students learn to take care of their own and others sexual health and to identify and access support. Health promotion helps students identify cultures of exclusion and advocate for change. It includes students learning to take action to promote sexual health, and healthy relationships, for example, by advocating for improved access to health services or by campaigning against discrimination. Sexuality education is most effective when supported by school policies and practices and by the establishment of healthy classroom environments. Examining attitudes and values gives students insight into the effect that their own attitudes and values have on sexuality-related behaviour, relationships, and on how people view sexuality in society. Sexuality education fosters attitudes of care and concern for self and others, values of respect and social justice, and understandings about rights and responsibilities. 8 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources How are the Navigating the journey Te takahi i te ara resources structured? Year levels and curriculum levels The Navigating the journey Te takahi i te ara resources consist of six individual resources for use with students at different year levels and this background resource. The resources are organised in year levels that would typically align to the curriculum levels outlined in the following table. It’s likely that you will have students working above or below these levels and will need to adapt the activities accordingly. Themes and activities Each resource contains a bank of activities from which you can design a programme that offers your students connected, holistic learning from lesson-to-lesson and from year-to year. We encourage you to make adaptations and additions to suit your students’ needs. We have suggested indicative times for activities, alternate year learning opportunities and extension tasks. The activities are organised into five themes. These themes continue and progress through the resource suite to support schools in delivering a coherent, school-wide sexuality education programme. The themes are: • Establishing a positive learning environment Te whakarite i tētahi ao ako huapai • Who am I? Ko wai au? • Relationships Ngā whanaungatanga • Growing and changing Te tipu me te huri o te tangata • Staying safe Te noho haumaru Typical range of curriculum levels Year levels into which this resource is organised Years 1–2 Level 1 Years 3–4 Level 2 Years 5–6 Level 3 Years 7–8 Level 4 Year 9 Level 5 Year 10 Level 6 9 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources Teacher tips Each learning activity is annotated with teacher tips and ideas for linking students’ learning at school to their learning at home. Keep an eye out for these icons: Teacher tips Links to home and community 10 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources Relationships and sexuality education and the metaphor of navigation The Navigating the journey Te takahi i te ara resources uses the metaphor of navigation to describe a person’s lifetime journey of growth and learning as a sexual being. It is a flexible concept that you are invited to develop with your students to ensure it has meaning for them. The metaphor is unpacked in the image of a landscape, representing the social, cultural, and physical landscape through which we each navigate. Establishing a positive learning environment Te whakarite i tētahi ao ako huapai Who am I? Ko wai au? Relationships Whanaungatanga Whoever we are, our tūpuna (ancestors) were once navigators who used the stars to travel the oceans. Even today, travellers on sea and on land use the Southern Cross to find their way safely home. In these resources, the five whetū (stars) of Te Pae Mahutonga (the Southern Cross) represent the five learning themes.five learning themes. Growing and changing Te tipu me te huri o te tangata Staying safe Te noho haumaru Our life’s journey The awa (river) represents our life’s journey and the waka (boat) represents the concept of travel. While the themes provide guidance for this shared learning experience, we are each on our own unique journey that will include individual inquiry and exploration. 11 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources The Whare Tapa Whā model of hauora (Durie 1994) has endured for over 30 years. As we strengthen in the four dimensions of hauora, we gain the strength and resilience needed to navigate and find meaning in the journey. Resources in our environment The key competencies We are shaped by the people in our lives and the places where we live. The maunga (mountains) represent the human and physical resources in our environment. The healthier our environment, the healthier we will be. The whenua provides the foundation for who and what we are. It is a foundation made up of our whakapapa, language, culture, and identity. Taha tinana (physical wellbeing) Taha hinengaro (mental and emotional wellbeing) Taha whānau (social wellbeing) Taha wairua (spiritual wellbeing) The forest of Tāne represents the key competencies. Our learning about sexuality should connect with and promote growth in each of the key competencies. 12 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources You can use this imagery as the basis for constructing a wall chart – a shared landscape – upon which you and your students can capture key learning. This can be done as a ritual at the end of each activity when you come together to reflect upon the learning. Working through this process provides you and the students with opportunities to revisit and monitor the learning, identifying where they are on their learning journeys and where they may want to go next. If you wish to use this imagery, it can be found in the Appendix. You will find your own approach, but one would be to: • come together as a class to identify key terms and concepts from the day’s learning • have the students move into groups, assign each group a term, and ask them to compose a relevant message that reflects what they have learnt • have each group place their term on the relevant part of the display and read out their message • organise the messages into a large book that is stored with the display • over time, add any other work or visual material to relevant parts of the display. This process might also be done online, using a drawing tool to create the landscape and annotating it digitally. As well as the group activity, or instead of it, you might have each individual student sketch and fill in their own personal landscape. 13 A guide for the Year 1-10 resources familyplanning.org.nz familyplanning.org.nz A guide for the Year 1-10 resources Planning your relationships and sexuality education programme A relationships and sexuality education programme should incorporate activities across the five themes. In the introduction to each resource, you will find a table that summarises the lessons for each theme, the key concepts that are covered, and the suggested learning intentions they will help you to address. We encourage you to select from and adapt the learning activities to suit the diverse needs and interests of your students. From year to year, employ a spiral approach and ensure that student learning progresses from year to year in a way that builds on and extends prior learning. Planning at the whole-school level Relationships and Sexuality education - A guide for teachers, leaders, and boards of trustees emphasises a whole-school approach. It needs to be embedded in the curriculum, in the school’s support services, and in a school culture that is genuinely inclusive, ensuring that all, staff and students, feel visible, safe, and valued. Community engagement Health education is the only area of the school’s curriculum for which the law specifically requires the board of trustees to consult with the school’s community; a consultation that takes place every two years. Genuine consultation enables you to design a programme that addresses the needs of your students and reflects the beliefs of the community. There is no prescribed process, but it should provide parents and whānau with accurate, relevant information about the draft statement on the delivery of health education and with the opportunity to provide feedback and ask questions. Relationships and Sexuality education - A guide for teachers, leaders, and boards of trustees has a section on community consultation and Family Planning can offer support to your school when conducting this process. Parental consent Following consultation and the adoption of the statement on the delivery of health education, schools do not need to seek permission from parents or caregivers on their child’s participation in the relationships and sexuality education programme. However, parents do have the right to withdraw their child from any elements of the sexuality education programme.