Scribal Habits and Theological Influences in the Apocalypse

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Summary of Scribal Habits and Theological Influences in the Apocalypse

Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament • 2. Reihe Herausgeber / Editor Jörg Frey Mitherausgeber / Associate Editors Friedrich Avemarie • Judith Gundry-Volf Martin Hengel • Otfried Hofius • Hans-Josef Klauck 218 Juan Hernández Jr. Scribal Habits and Theological Influences in the Apocalypse The Singular Readings of Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and Ephraemi Mohr Siebeck JUAN HERNANDEZ JR., born 1968; 1998 M.Div.; 2000 Th.M.; 2006 Ph.D. Emory University; Assistant Professor of Biblical Studies at Bethel University, MN, USA. ISBN 3-16-149112-2 ISBN-13 978-3-16-149112-2 ISSN 0340-9570 (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, 2. Reihe) Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbiblio- graphie; detailed bibliographic data is available in the Internet at © 2006 by Mohr Siebeck, Tubingen, Germany. This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, in any form (beyond that permitted by copyright law) without the publisher's written permission. This applies particularly to reproductions, translations, microfilms and storage and processing in electronic systems. The book was printed by Guide-Druck in Tübingen on non-aging paper and bound by Buchbinderei Held in Rottenburg/N. Printed in Germany. 978-3-16-157070-4 Unveränderte eBook-Ausgabe 2019 A Melissa De Jesús Hernández por su amor y apoyo Acknowledgments The following investigation of scribal habits and theological influences in the Apocalypse is the slightly revised version of an Emory University dissertation accepted by the New Testament Program of the Graduate Division of Reli- gion in April 2006. It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge here the role of the committee members who supervised its preparation. First and foremost, credit goes to my advisor and thesis director, Professor Carl R. Holladay, who supported the project from its inception and encouraged me to keep to the "original vision" during its execution. Many thanks also go to the readers, Professors Walter T. Wilson and Gail R. O'Day, for their advice, probing qu- estions, and encouragement throughout. Finally, I am especially indebted to Professor Michael W. Holmes, who first suggested the project to me and self- lessly offered the gifts of his time and text-critical expertise to the study. Pro- fessor Holmes's direction and attention to detail have proven to be indispen- sable. It is safe to say that every page bears the imprint of his erudition. I must also express my gratitude to Professor James R. Royse, whose groundbreaking 1981 dissertation, "Scribal Habits in Early Greek New Tes- tament Papyri," served as both the inspiration and model for my own project. Although Professor Royse and I did not formally meet until the project was well underway, once we became acquainted he took an active interest in the investigation and contributed significantly by offering critical feedback, shar- ing portions of his own soon to be published monograph, and by participating in my dissertation defense. In addition to the committee, I was also fortunate to find a cadre of careful readers who read several early drafts of my work and influenced my thinking in a number of ways. Thanks must go to my former professor and friend of many years, Moisés Silva, who read several chapters of the manuscript and influenced its development at various stages. I also owe a debt of gratitude to Bart B. Bruehler, Kevin A. Muñoz, Robert H. von Thaden, colleagues in the NT program here at Emory, who on many occasions sacrificed their time and their own projects to read and critique multiple installments of the disserta- tion. I would also like to express my gratitude to Professor Jörg Frey for his de- cision to include my dissertation in the Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament series. Thanks are also due to Ms. Jana Trispel of Möhr Siebeck for her editorial assistance and to David Aiken of Bookworm Edito- rial Services for his formatting of the manuscript. VIII A cknowledgments Full-time study would have been impossible without the financial support of two institutions. Emory University's Graduate Division of Religion and the Hispanic Theological Initiative awarded me scholarships that sustained me during my first five years in the doctoral program. My sixth and final year of research was funded by the generous gift I received from my friends Doris and Terry Looper and Brannin and Tanya Pitre. Without such support a study of the scribes of the Apocalypse might never have materialized. I am grateful for their investments in the life of the mind. Above all, I must express my heartfelt gratitude to my wife, Melissa, for her unfailing love and support during my tenure at Emory. Little else matters in this life without her companionship. It is to her that I dedicate this study. Contents Acknowledgments VII Abbreviations XVI Chapter 1: Prolegomena to the Study of the Greek Text of the Apocalypse 1 1.1. Introduction 1 1.2. The Distinctive Character of the Apocalypse's MS Tradition 2 1.3. Status Quaestionis: The Greek Text of the Apocalypse 5 1.3.1. Textual History 5 1.3.2. Transcriptional Probabilities 6 1.4. Scribal Tendencies in the Apocalypse: Its Singular Readings 7 1.5. Structure and Plan of the Dissertation 8 1.6. Thesis 8 Chapter 2: A History of Research of the Greek Text of the Apocalypse 10 2.1. In Search of the Apocalypse's Urtext 10 2.1.1. Patristic and Medieval Witnesses to the Greek Text of the Apocalypse 11 The Patristic Period 11 The Middle Ages 12 Summary 12 2.1.2. The Greek Text of the Apocalypse: The Achilles' Heel of the Textus Receptus 13 A Mutilated Greek MS of the Apocalypse: Erasmus and Codex Reuchlin 13 Early Dissenters in the Name of the Apocalypse: Bentley and Bengel 14 Bentley 15 Bengel 15 The Overthrow of the Textus Receptus: Lachmann 17 2.1.3. The Quest for the Urtext of the Apocalypse 18 Reconstructing the Greek Text of the Apocalypse on the Basis ofX: Tischendorf.... 18 Reconstructing the Greek Text of the Apocalypse on the Basis of A and C: Westcott and Hort 19 Reconstructing the Greek Text of the Apocalypse on the Basis of Intrinsic Probability: Weiss and Bousset 21 Summary 22 2.1.4. From Urtext to Textgeschichte: von Soden 22 2.1.5. The Definitive History of the Greek Text of the Apocalypse: Schmid 23 Die Hauptstämme des griechischen Apk-Textes und ihrer gegenseitigen Beziehungen 24 Ergebnisse 25 Der Sprachgebrauch der Apokalypse 26 2.1.6. Interlude 27 2.1.7. Summary 27 X Contents 2.2. In Search of Scribal Habits and Practices 28 2.2.1. Theological Tendencies in Codex Bezae: Eldon Jay Epp 30 A Sample of Anti-Judaism in D 32 Epp's Argument 33 Conclusion 34 2.2.2. Orthodox Corruption of Scripture: Bart D. Ehrman 35 A Sample of Anti-Adoptionistic Corruption 37 Ehrman's Argument 39 Conclusion 39 2.2.3. Interlude 40 2.2.4. Greater Precision for Assessing Scribal Tendencies: E. C. Colwell and J. R. Royse....41 A Corrective to Hort's Genealogical Method: Colwell 42 Revising the Shorter Reading Canon on the Basis of Scribal Tendencies: Royse 43 Singular Readings and Scribal Habits 44 Scribal Tendencies in John's Apocalypse: The Singular Readings of *P47 46 2.3. The Current Project: The Singular Readings of X, A, and C 46 Chapter 3: The Singular Readings of the Apocalypse in Codex Sinaiticus 49 3.1. Introduction 49 3.1.1. Hort's Synthesis 49 3.1.2. Weiss's Study 50 3.1.3. Recent Developments 51 3.1.4. Chapter Goal: To Answer Two Basic Questions 54 3.2. The Limits of the Investigation 55 3.2.1. Transcription of Sinaiticus: Date and Location 55 3.2.2. The Transcription of Sinaiticus: Its Scribes and Correctors 56 Scribes of Sinaiticus 57 Correctors of Sinaiticus 58 The Merits of Distinguishing between Correctors 58 3.3. Classification and Discussion 59 3.3.1. Insignificant Singulars 60 Orthographical Variations 60 Nasal Sound Confusion 60 Consonantal Confusion 60 Vowel Replacement 61 Dropping of Consonants 61 Adding Consonants 62 Uncontracted Forms 62 Conclusion 62 3.3.2. Nonsense Readings 62 Strictly Nonsense 62 Nonsense in Context 63 Conclusion 65 3.4. Significant Singulars 65 3.4.1. Additions 65 One-Word Additions 65 Additions Involving Two or More Words 66 Factors in the Additions 66 Word Count 69 Contents X I 3.4.2. Omissions 70 One-Word Omissions 70 Omissions Involving Two or More Words 70 3.4.3. Factors in the Omissions 70 Omissions Due to Homoeoteleuton 70 Omissions Due to Homoeoarchton 71 Omissions Due to Partial Homoeoteleuton or Homoeoarchton? 71 Inexplicable Omissions 72 Explicable Omissions 73 3.4.4. Word Count 74 3.4.5. Conclusion 74 3.5. Transpositions 75 3.5.1. Initial Omission Due to Homoeoteleuton 75 3.5.2. Initial Omission Due to Homoeoarchton 76 3.6. Harmonizations 76 3.6.1. Introductory Comments 76 3.6.2. Harmonization to Parallels 77 3.6.3. Harmonization to Context 78 Additions 78 Substitutions 78 Transpositions 79 Omissions 80 Grammatical Attraction 80 3.6.4. Harmonization to Usage 80 3.6.5. Conclusion 82 3.7. Grammatical Changes 82 3.7.1. Verbs (46) 83 3.7.2. Conjunctions (30) 84 3.7.3. Pronouns (27) 84 3.7.4. Adjectives (23) 85 3.7.5. Prefixes (2) 86 3.7.6. Conclusion 86 3.8. Miscellaneous 87 3.9. Concluding Remarks 87 3.9.1. Hort and Weiss Revisited 87 3.9.2. Singular Readings with Theological Ramifications 89 What Was Not Found 89 Singular Readings Reflecting a Heightened Christology 89 Christ Was Not Created 90 Christ Does Not Possess Base Bodily Functions 90 Christ Cannot Be Possessed 91 Christ Does Not Touch Sinful Women 92 Concluding Remarks on the Christological Contributions 93 3.9.3. Other Potential Theological Contributions 93 3.9.4. The Maverick Tradition: Contrast between the Singular Readings of N and the Corrections of Nc, Xcc, Xcc* 94 Chapter 4: The Singular Readings of the Apocalypse in Codex Alexandrinus 96 4.1. Introduction 96 XII Contents 4.1.1. Codex Alexandrinus and the Original Greek Text of the Apocalypse: Bengel, Lachmann, Hort, and Schmid 96 4.1.2. The Apocalypse's Singular Readings in Codex Alexandrinus: Departures and Faithful Reproductions of the Urtext 97 Criteria for Determining the Authenticity of a Singular Reading 98 The Significance of Authentic Singular Readings 99 4.2. The Limits of the Investigation 100 4.2.1. The Transcription of Alexandrinus: Date and Location 100 Date 100 Location 100 4.2.2. The Transcription of Codex Alexandrinus: Its Scribes and Correctors 101 Scribes 101 Correctors 102 4.3. Classification and Discussion 103 4.3.1. Insignificant Singulars 103 Orthographical Variations 103 Vowel Replacement 103 Consonantal Changes 104 Nonsense Readings 104 Strictly Nonsense 104 Nonsense in Context 105 Conclusion 106 4.3.2. Significant Singulars 106 Additions 107 One-Word Additions 107 Additions Involving Two or More Words 107 Factors in the Additions 107 Word Count 110 Omissions 110 One-Word Omissions 110 Omissions Involving Two or More Words 110 Factors in the Omissions 110 Omissions Due to Homoeoteleuton 111 Omissions Due to Homoeoarchton 111 Inexplicable or Arbitrary Omissions 112 Omissions Due to Harmonizing 112 Word Count 113 Conclusion 113 4.3.3. Transpositions 114 4.3.4. Harmonizations 115 Harmonization to Parallels 115 Harmonization to Context 116 Additions 116 Substitutions 116 Transpositions 118 Omissions 118 Grammatical Attraction 119 Harmonization to Usage 119 Conclusion 119 4.3.5. Grammatical Changes 120 Contents XIII Verbs (16) 120 Conjunctions (7) 121 Pronouns (5) 122 Adjectives (7) 122 Prefixes (1) 122 Conclusion 122 4.3.6. Miscellaneous 123 4.3.7. Non-Created Singular Readings 124 4.4. Summary 126 4.4.1. Surprising Similarities in Scribal Habits with Methodological Implications 126 4.4.2. Significant Differences in Scribal Habits 126 Singular Readings Reflecting an Altered Christology 127 Christ Is Not Simply the "First," He is the "Firstborn" 127 Christ Does Not Engage in Acts of Impropriety 128 Other Potential Theological Contributions 129 4.5. Conclusion 131 Chapter 5: The Singular Readings of the Apocalypse in Codex Ephraemi 132 5.1. Introduction 132 5.1.1. The Textual Value of Codex Ephraemi 132 5.1.2. The Special Challenges of a Palimpsest 133 5.1.3. The Singular Readings of Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus 134 5.2. The Limits of the Investigation 135 5.2.1. The Transcription of Ephraemi: Date and Location 135 Date 135 Location 136 5.2.2. The Transcription of Ephraemi: Its Scribes and Correctors 136 Scribes of Ephraemi 136 Correctors of Ephraemi 137 5.3. Classification and Discussion 138 5.3.1. Insignificant Singulars (34) 138 Orthographical Variations 138 Consonantal Confusion 138 Vowel Replacement 139 Duplication of Consonants 140 Conclusion 140 Nonsense Readings 141 Strictly Nonsense 141 Nonsense in Context 142 Conclusion 143 5.3.2. Significant Singulars (43) 143 Additions 143 One-Word Additions 144 Two-Word Additions 144 Factors in the Additions 144 Word Count 145 Omissions (21) 145 One-Word Omissions 145 Omissions Involving Two or More Words 145 XIV Contents Two-Word Omissions 145 Three-Word Omissions 145 Factors in the Omissions 146 Omissions Due to Homoeoteleuton 146 Omissions Due to Homoeoarchton 146 Inexplicable Omissions 147 Explicable Omissions 148 Word Count 148 Conclusion 148 Transpositions 149 Harmonization to Context 149 Additions 149 Substitutions 149 Omissions 149 Grammatical Attraction 149 Conclusion 150 Grammatical Changes 150 Verbs (9) 150 Conjunctions (5) 151 Pronouns (6) 152 Adjectives (3) 152 Prefixes (1) 152 Conclusion 152 Miscellaneous 153 5.3.3. Concluding Remarks 153 Chapter 6: Theological Concerns over the Interpretation of the Apocalypse 156 6.1. Introduction 156 6.1.1. Preliminary Remarks 156 6.1.2. Concerns Traditionally Associated with the Apocalypse 156 6.1.3. Concerns Traditionally "Unassociated" with the Apocalypse 158 6.2. Concerns Traditionally Associated with the Apocalypse 159 6.2.1. Preliminary Remarks 159 Canvassing Pre-Fourth Century Concerns over the Apocalypse with Fourth Century Concerns 159 The Language and Content of the Apocalypse 160 6.2.2. The Language of the Apocalypse and Disputes over Its Apostolic Authorship 161 Secondary Sources on the Language and Authorship of the Apocalypse 161 Singular Readings and the Language and Authorship of the Apocalypse 162 6.2.3. The Visionary Content of the Apocalypse and Problems of Interpretation 163 The Millennium and Jewish Material in the Apocalypse 163 Prophecy in the Apocalypse 165 Geographical References in the Apocalypse 166 Christ in the Apocalypse 167 Angels in the Apocalypse 169 Conclusion: Concerns Traditionally Associated with the Apocalypse 170 6.3. Concerns Traditionally "Unassociated" with the Apocalypse 171 6.3.1. Preliminary Remarks: The Continuum of Concerns over the Apocalypse's Visionary Content 171