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International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom ISSN 2348 0386 Vol. VIII, Issue 2, February 2020 Licensed under Creative Common Page 321 SELF AWARENESS, SELF MANAGEMENT, SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES PREDICTING EFFECTIVE FOR MALE AND FEMALE ACADEMICS IN HIGHER EDUCATION Dyah Kusumastuti Faculty of Social and Business Sciences International Women University (IWU), Indonesia [email protected], [email protected] Dewi Indriani Faculty of Social and Business Sciences International Women University (IWU), Indonesia [email protected] Abstract This paper intends to explore and answer of two research questions: What competencies are needed for effective academics in their performance? Are there differences in their demonstration competencies between effective academics male and female? This research used 120 a samples of academics whose performance is effective and they are professionally certified as academics from universities that have recognition or Higher Education (HEI’s) accreditation from the National Accreditation Board of HE with grade between Excellent and Very Good. The research method used is Behavior Event Interview (BEI) from 3 samples of academics who perform superior to get various competencies are needed as successful academics. From BEI results, then identified 16 competencies which are clustered into Self- Awareness, Self-Management, Social and Professional Competencies. From 16 Competencies developed an ordinal questionnaire to be surveyed to the number of samples above to determine the level of job competency requirement (JCR). The findings of this research show that the JCR as effective academics. They are 16 competencies are Self Awareness, Self- Development, Achievement Orientation, Planning, Problem Solving, Creative Thinking, © Kusumastuti & Indriani Licensed under Creative Common Page 322 Organization Awareness, Leadership, Communication, Teamwork, Networking, Service Orientation, Developing Others, Intellectual Acumen, Educational Technology and Professional Services. From statistical testing indicated that the male and female academics demonstrated an equivalent level of competency behaviors. The implications for HEI that 16 competencies can be developed to achieve effective performance for academics at the University and the recruitment of academics was initially needed that they could potentially develop themselves or have Self development Competency into professional academics. Keywords: Academics, competency, gender, success INTRODUCTION Higher Education (HEI) as a Knowledge Enterprise functions to produce knowledge that is utilized to improve the quality of people's lives which in turn will lead to community welfare. Indonesia has 4670 HEI’s including Universitiy, Institute, High Schools Learning, Academy and Polytechnics, with 8,043,480 students and 253,032 lecturers, based on gender there are 167,296 Male and 127,524 Female (Higher Education Statistical Year Book,2018 in Indonesia). Based on data reports (Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia, 2013). In accordance with the demographic growth bonus in Indonesia, the population will be 271,066,400 in 2020 in which female be 134,923,900 and male be 136,142,500. Thus, the number of female who work in various types of work continues to increase, including female as academics and university leaders. From the potential number of universities in Indonesia and the diversity of cultures spread across many islands, this is the potential and strength to become nation competitive, so Indonesia needs the right strategy to make world class quality of HEI’s The Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE) is seriously striving to enhance the quality of HEI’s, through quality of management, Quality of research, quality of human resources and quality of institutions with the Higher Education Ranking System since 2015 (Kusumastuti & Idrus, 2017). Lecturers / academics play an important role in the quality of HE, this is in accordance with the Teacher and Lecturer Law No. 14 of 2005, that lecturers need to have 4 competencies which include Social, personality, pedagogy and professional. The policy needs to be reviewed in line with the development facing the Industrial Revolution 4.0. An Agenda for Leaders to Shape the Future of Education, Gender and Work (WEF,2016) HEI’s are required to have more International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdom Licensed under Creative Common Page 323 innovative learning systems such as curriculum change , learning that provides learning menu choices and opportunities for students to design their own learning. HE’s Industrial Revolution 4.0 needs a change in the academic landscape that gives students freedom to study across disciplines and students are required to be able to improve students' abilities in terms of data "Information Technology (IT), Operational Technology (OT), Internet of Things (IoT), and Big Data Analitics", integrating physical, digital and human objects to produce competitive and skilled college graduates, especially in the aspects of data literacy, technological literacy and human resource literacy. For this reason, institutional policies in higher education are needed that are adaptive and responsive to the Industrial Revolution 4.0 in developing interdisciplinary disciplines and required study programs. Lecturers are required as facilitators who are able to convey knowledge and quality teaching materials and at the same time must be able to teach them clearly and attractively. For this reason, a behavioral, cognitive, affective revolution or the need to restore lecturer competence is needed. This research reveals the need for lecturer competency as an effective professional performance. There are 5 competencies that must be possessed by Indonesian lecturers in the Industrial Revolution 4.0 era, such as : 1) Educational competence: Internet of Thing (IOT) based competence as basic skills in this era. 2) Competence in research: competence in building networks to grow knowledge, research direction and skilled in getting international grants. 3) Competence in globalization: world-oriented competence without insulation, not stuttering about various cultures, hybrid competence, namely global competence and excellence in solving national problems. 4) Competence in future strategies, a world that is easy to change and runs fast, wants the competence to predict precisely what will happen in the future based on shared and current information, as well as the inconsistency in developing strategies to deal with it, by means of joint-lecture, joint- research, joint-publications, joint-labs, mobility and rotation staff, understanding SDG's direction and industry (Kusumastuti, Suryaningprang, Idrus, 2019b). Competence is defined as an ability based on intent (intent) and from real experience (visible from behavior) found to influence, or can be used to estimate (level) performance at work or the ability to overcome problems in a particular situation (Boyatzis, R.E., 2009). Behavior is an alternative manifestation of meaning in a variety of situations or times. The importance of using the competency based in academics development. © Kusumastuti & Indriani Licensed under Creative Common Page 324 The purpose of this research is to determine the competency needs of academics to perform effectively and to find out whether there are differences in competency requirements for effective academics between male and female. Furthermore, the findings of the research can be used to develop lecturer competencies for their professional strengthening. LITERATURE REVIEW Many organizations use a competency framework to identify high potentials of individuals and use these competencies for criteria in assessment, which are then followed by a learning and development plan based on competency gaps (Sateesh, Patil, Chandawarkar, 2019). The International Development Dimension Study found that, for organizations to be effective, the integration of goal and competency based systems is very important. How can individuals increase productivity or cut costs if they try hard, unless they change their behavior. The failure of goal-based systems can be related to not considering competencies and the organizations implementing goal-based assessments communicating the achievement (or lack of achievement) of goals, but failing to communicate why they achieved or failed to achieve them. Why Human Resources competency? The Existing literature on Human Resource (HR) competencies is a factor that determines the success of HR performance. It consistently shows that strategic HR competencies are the strongest predictors of successful performance in the HR role. According (Ulrich, Younger, Brockbank, & Ulrich, 2012) identified six groups of HR competencies, including strategic positioners, credible activists, ability builders, champions of change, innovators and integrators of human resources, and initiators of technology. The authors argue that an element of greater emphasis must be placed on HR competencies that add the greatest value to business, such as connecting people through technology; align strategy, culture, practice and behavior; and sustain change. Although these findings have shown that HR competency requirements have evolved over time, they continue to emphasize a universal approach by focusing on identifying generic competencies for HR practitioners What is a competency? A competency is defined as a capability or ability , it is a set of related but different sets of behavior organized around an underlying construct called the intent (Kandulla,2015). Universally accepted definition of competency is a cluster of knowledge, skills and personal attributes that affects a major part of one’s job that correlates with performance on the job, can International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdom Licensed under Creative Common Page 325 be observed well accepted standards, and can be improved through training and development . All of these competency definitions have the same elements in them as illustrated here: 1. Competency is the realization of a cluster of knowledge, skills, and personal attributes such as motives, traits, and self-image. 2. Competency is a charteristics that underlies someone. 3. Competency is related to performance on a job. 4. Competency can predict behavior to produce performance. The Criteria most frequently used in competency studies are : Superior Performance. This is defined statistically in the normal distribution curve as a standard deviation (SD) above the average performance (see Figure 2), roughly the level achieved by 1 person out of 10 people in a given situation or 10% of a certain number. Average Performance or so-called Effective Performance, This usually means a minimum acceptable level of performance, a lower cutoff point below where an employee will not be considered competent to do the job. Spencer (1993), Berger (2004), Competencies can be divided into two categories, threshold and differentiating , related with the job performance . Threshold competencies, knowledge, skill, and personality characteristics required for minimally acceptable performance. For example, a sales person threshold competency is product knowledge. Differentiating competencies , these factors distinguish people who can do the job from those who cannot. Characteristics that predict superior performance from average performer. For example, achievement orientation expressed in person’s setting goals higher than those required by the organization. Performance Level Criteria Performance level criteria are measured from a point on the normal distribution (see Figure 2) of the performance results for all employees in a job. This point can be anywhere on the curve, but the three most commonly used reference classifications are: Minimum acceptable: lower cut-off point, under which employees will be replaced because their performance is below what the organization can tolerate, this is misfit. While the average performance is seen on the average bell curve that is effective performance means a minimally acceptable level of work. Superior performance is seen as a standard deviation above the average, top 15% or roughly one of the top 10 employees in a job. © Kusumastuti & Indriani Licensed under Creative Common Page 326 Job Complexity INCREASED Productivity Low +19% = 119% Average Moderate +32% = 132% 100% 0% 15% 50% Salary Percent of People in a Job Figure 2. Economic value added by superior (+1 SD) performance (Berger, 2004) Some authors develop that the Competency dictionary is used as an identification of Job Competency requirements to produce effective to superior performance. The concept of the needs of Higher Education academics or lecturers is developed based on Law Number 14 of 2005 Teacher and Lecturer Indonesia Government Policy, namely academics need to have the competence and obligations of lecturers in Indonesia to conduct an activity called Tridharma or the Trilogy of Higher Education, which is the task is Teaching learning, Research and Community Service / Professional Services, so that the concept of competency needs for academics with superior performance is identified according to Law number 14, of 2005 namely pedagogy, professional, social, and self & personality competencies, according to table 1, may include Emotional Intelligence , Self-Development, Achievement Orientation, Planning & Organizing, Creative Thinking, Problem-Solving & Decision-making, Leadership, Networking, Building Effective Team, Communication Organizational awareness, Service Orientation, Intelectual Acumen, Developing Others, Professional Services. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdom Licensed under Creative Common Page 327 Table 1. Competency Dictionary METHODOLOGY This research method uses quantitative which is to determine the variable competency requirements for academics who perform effectively with the BEI technique (Behavior event Interview) technique. Three of academics with effective performance, called Tridharma or Trilogy HE, professional educators and scientists with the main task to transform, to develop, to disseminate science and technology through education, research and community service. The interview are structured by asking past experiences, up to 2 years ago, principle question is what makes them successful in Tri Dharma, what is the situation like? What role do they play at that time? and what result? This questioning technique is known as STAR (Situation Action Result). © Kusumastuti & Indriani Licensed under Creative Common Page 328 From the competency results with a behavior indicator (competency dictionary) then quantitative research is conducted using the ordinal questionnaire instrument (hard copy and google.doc) to find out which level of competency is very often done for the lecturer. A sample of 120 lecturers with +1 Standard Deviation (SD) performance, lecturer data obtained from the data of the Science and Technology Index (SINTA) MoRTHE of the Republic of Indonesia from 5 accredited universities with excellent grade from the National Accreditation Board . Questions through the ordinal questionnaire that is to choose the level of competence that is the behavior indicator. The competency level results are processed with descriptive statistics to get which level is popular or the “mode” in statistic descriptive chosen by the respondent. This result is a research finding that is Job Competency Requirement (JCR) from academics who have effective performance. Then the competency test is performed between Male and Female groups with Mann-Whitney U test is a nonparametric statistical significance test for determining whether two independent samples were drawn from a population with the same distribution, in this research to compare differences in the level of competence of the JCR between two independent groups of Male and Female groups of academics in which competency level data are not normally distributed. Interpretation of the results of different tests with Mann-Whitney if the Sign or P value of <0.05 critical limit then there are significant differences between the two groups of Male and Female Academics. Figure 2. Academics Competency research model FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION From interviews with the BEI technique of distiungishing characteristics of superior performance academics produced 16 dictionary competencies, of which each Competency would generally International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdom Licensed under Creative Common Page 329 consist of three behavioral indicators or specific behavioral ways of demonstrating the competencies in the job, which can be seen in table 2. Table 2. Competency Dictionary No & Level Competency, Definition and Behavior Indicators No & Level Competency, Definition and Behavior Indicators 1 Emotional Self Awareness Definition: The ability to understand one's own emotions, strengths, limitations. values, and motives, self-aware, reality about achievement, being honest with one self and taking into account the effects of one self on others self, as well as anticipating other people's worries and feelings. 9 Communication Definition The ability to ensure that information is passed on to others who must be informed, communicate clearly, decisively and professionally with stakeholders, with the aim of creating mutual understanding. 1.1 • Asking for feedback to realize the potential • Showing one's own emotional awareness, expressing emotions constructively. • Treat others with dignity, respect . 9.1 • Interpreting, revealing complex information becomes easily understood by the audience. • Express yourself clearly in conversations and interactions with others. • Use multiple channels or means to deliver important messages . 1.2 • Realizing as a lecturer to be called upon to continue to master science. • Control yourself when criticized, attacked or Provoked. • Maintain a sense of humor in difficult situations • Find non-threatening ways to approach others about sensitive issues. 9.2 • Make concise writing with an easy to understand communication style. • Use proper grammar and choice of words in spoken Speech. • Arrange messages, information clearly, sharply that the audience understands. 1.3 • Has a strong sense of collegiality among fellow lecturers in the workplace. • Understand the root causes of negative emotions • Address diversity with tolerance and respect. • Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity. • Make others feel comfortable by responding in ways that show an interest in what they say. 9.3 • Adapt speech content to audience level and Experience. • Use proper grammar and choice of words in spoken Speech. • Summarize or paraphrase his understanding of what others are saying, to verify understanding and prevent miscommunication. 2 Self Development Definition: The ability to commit personally to and actively work to continuously improve himself. The most fulfilling path to success and personal fulfillment comes through the pursuit of self-development. 10 Building Effective Team Definition: Ability to Build effective work teams with establish and foster cooperation, and develop relationships and networks strategic in carrying out tasks by considering social aspects, economic, political and regulatory framework in order to achieve organizational goals. 2.1 • Continually developing yourself comfortably is a priority. • Motivated to find information related to personal development. • Understand the weaknesses and strengths of the self related profession. 10.1 • Working together to complement each other for effective goals. • Strive to be a good team in cooperation, producing outcomes according to objectives. • Invite others to support organizational group decisions. 2.2 • Knowing exactly the interpersonal and developmental needs of managerial self- development needs. • Recognize the need to change personal, interpersonal, and managerial behavior. • Actively seeking feedback. 10.2 • Collaborate to build cross-disciplinary research • Show positive expectations to others. • Appreciate others who succeed. • Asking questions to identify interests, experiences, or other similarities 2.3 • Proactively looking for institutional opportunities outside the institution. • Dedicated to continuous learning and self- improvement, and aggressively. • Conduct activities to enrich intelligence, to build new skills and to hone existing skills. 10.3 • Establish agreements with parties in the higher education value chain. • Establish work relationships for organizational effectiveness • Establish communication with related stakeholders © Kusumastuti & Indriani Licensed under Creative Common Page 330 3 Achievement Orientation Definisi : Concern for working well or for competing against a standard of excellence., include results orientation, concern for standards, optimizing use of resources, entrepreneurship. The standard may be set by individual or even what anyone has ever done (innovation). 11 Networking Definition: The ability to develop relationships and networks with work units within the organization and parties outside the organization in industry, associations or professional groups, government institutions, media, in order to improve access to important information, knowledge and skills and utilize internal and external networks as an effort to support the achievement of organizational goals. 3.1 • Develop challenging but achievable goals. • Focusing on the final results set by the work unit. • Work towards goals, and meet or exceed Standards. • Creating ways to measure performance against Goals. 11.1 • Act to ensure their scientific discipline contributes to higher education. • Expanding access to information to build networks. • Recognize the need to build relationships. • Understand & know the right resource in building relationships, inside and outside the organization. 3.2 • Inspire / motivate to achieve high academic standards. • Maintain a commitment to the goal, in the face of obstacles. • Give an unusual effort from time to time, to achieve a goal. 11.2 • Establish a balanced relationship. • Extending useful networks. • Establish operational tactical relationships for the common good. 3.3 • Have a strong sense of urgency about solving problems and completing work • Creating value in teaching-research to enhance the reputation of higher education • Strive to create a culture of achievement to set an example. 11.3 • Build networks with other organizations and keep up to date on research & what is happening in the international research community • Create a conducive environment for managing partnerships (internal and national & international) 4 Planning & Organizing Definition: Ability to plan & organize work according to the needs of the organization / university by considering resources, time frames & limits effectively. 12 Service Orientation Definition: The ability to understand the needs and serve others within the scope of the organization. Takes personal responsibility for customer service problems. 4.1 • Set priorities for effective achievement. • Setting goals and managing work and the necessary resource requirements. • Achieve goals with available resources to achieve the results set. 12.1 • Ensure customer-oriented service, • Follow through on client inquiries, requests, complaints , • Keeps client up to date about progress of project. 4.2 • Always analyze both methods, priorities, concepts for effective time management. • Consider various factors in the planning process • Anticipate possible setbacks and revisions to plans as needed by providing resources as needed . 12.2 • Have extensive knowledge of all agency services and use them, • Maintains clear communication with client regarding mutual expectations . • Distributes helpful information to clients. 4.3 • Synergize teaching, research, and service with interdisciplinary nature. • Organizing people and prioritizing multiple unit unit activities for achieve improved results. • Evaluate the process and results, anticipate possible setbacks, and adjust the results according to the plan. 12.3 • Turning Competencies into learning, research and professional services. • Take personal responsibility. • Correct Customer service problems promptly and un defensively. 5 Problem Solving & Decision Making Definition: The ability to solve problems by making decisions through careful and systematic evaluation of information, possible alternatives and the consequences for being believed to make good decisions in a timely manner. 13 Developing others Definition: Willingness to delegate responsibilities and to work with others and train them to develop their abilities. Teaching and training , coaching others, realistic positive regards , assuring, subordinates growth and development . 5.1 •Identify problems through data analysis and data and work through observation •Make easy decisions based on available information. •Seek guidance and consult with others to verify it correct solution / decision. 13.1 •Motivate, encourage students, coworkers to realize their potential. •Show positive expectations to others. •Share information, advice, and suggestions to help others become more successful. 5.2 •Anticipate risks around decisions. •Establish guidelines for solving problems that are difficult to define. 13.2 •Create a positive feedback environment. •Give people tasks that will help develop their abilities. •Hold meetings to review the progress of their International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdom Licensed under Creative Common Page 331 •Make it a fair decision with minor consequences •Making analysis and various alternative solutions. development. 5.3 • Prepare steps to alleviate any problems. • Develop solutions that address the root causes of the problem. 13.3 •Encourage students and coworkers to achieve maximum achievement. •Identify & design new programs for training needs. •Express confidence in the ability of others to be successful. 6 CreativeThinking Definition: The ability to be creative, develop new ideas that are unique, make connections between previously unrelated ideas, use unusual methods, are seen as original and have added value 14 Intellectual Acumen: Definition The ability to be smart and capable; dealing with concepts and complexity comfortably; good at learning and describing new knowledge; able to assimilate new skills independently. 6.1 •Producing innovative teaching and research programs to advance knowledge and learning in related disciplines. 14.1 • Demonstrate interest in a particular field • Maintain skills and knowledge. • Simplify complex things into a single concept that is easy to understand. 6.2 •Developing products / ideas by collaborating with more experienced research partners. •Using a new event car that can provide meaningful effectiveness. 14.2 • Creating concepts with a new perspective. • Mastering the field of knowledge related to the job (can be technical, managerial or professional). 6.3 •Create benefits as opportunities for learning & research findings to improve the quality of life of the community. • Makes extraordinary . Acts without formal authority. 14.3 • Make a formula for solving complex problems • Easily understand and assimilate complex ideas and integrate them, • Motivation to use, develop and share work-related knowledge with others 7 Organization Awareness Definition: The ability to realize, understand formal and informal organizations,recognize organizational boundaries that are not visible. Recognize problems and opportunities that affect the organization 15 Skills in using Communication & Information technology Definition: The ability to respond quickly and learn new technical skills and knowledge; find ways to improve technical knowledge. 7.1 • Try to understand the University's organization by implementing the rules set. • Understand the way events are organized. • Using organizational ethics in completing work tasks. 15.1 •Make adjustments to the learning methods specified by the campus university. •Quickly learn and integrate new technical skills and knowledge. •Have an interest in learning, integrating, and applying the latest ICT / digitalization skills and knowledge 7.2 • Carry out activities that are part of the university's strategy with pride. • Carry out activities as a member of the organization / as a representative of the organization . 15.2 •Develop ideas for learning methods with ICT, digitalization. •Effectively incorporating new technical knowledge consistently into his work. •Look for opportunities to apply new knowledge / ICT skills 7.3 • Actively carry out programs for the sake of the image of the university. • Gives Competence for organizational effectiveness. • Understands Climate and Culture.Recognizes unspoken organizational contraints. 15.3 •Digitizing various jobs related to Tridharma PT's activities and having a very positive effect •Skillful applying new technical knowledge towards innovation and performance improvement. •Continue to look for opportunities to apply technical innovation to organizational problems 8 Inspiration Leadership Definition: The ability to lead & inspire others by using interpersonal styles and influence strategies that are effective in inspiring others and get support. 16 Professional Services for Community Definition: The ability to use science and expertise includes both the mastery of a body of job related knowledge and also the motivation to use and distribute to others 8.1 •Creating a situation, an atmosphere to be approachable so that it joins. • Use a style of communication that is straightforward and based on reason. • Shows attention to the other person's response to the acceptance of his ideas. 16.1 • Prepare yourself as a professional for life. • Be aware of the use of your knowledge, skills & expertise. • Distributes current information in role as expert ,answer questions from community. 8.2 • Conveying ideas based on clarification of the interlocutor's understanding. • Ensuring subordinates / team's practical needs are met – identified. 16.2 • Perform professional services to improve the quality of life of the community • Offer technical help, acts as a floating consultant . • Offering personal expertise to improve performance, or © Kusumastuti & Indriani Licensed under Creative Common Page 332 Source: research data From table 2, the behavior indicator statement is arranged in the form of an ordinal questionnaire with the level of competence as the answer choice. To find out whether the research instrument in this case the questionnaire answered was reliable or not, the reliability of the research instrument was tested by calculating the Cronbach alpha test with the results of the SPSS version 22 statistical test. Cronbach's Alpha 0.915, which means the research instrument was valid and consistent. Profiles of 120 academics as samples can be seen in table 3. Tabel 3. Academics Profil Total academics as Sample 120 Assistant Professor Associate Professor Professor Academic Position 68% 22 % 10% Research & Publication(the number of publications in the past 3 years) Less from 5= 39 (32%) More >5= 81 (68%) Communnity Service 120 all sample doing Community service Gender Male Female Total 66 (55 %) 54 (45%) Then the respondent's answer will be the choice of competency level, which is chosen with the highest number or competency level, which is fashionable in statistics. The results of the competency level with the choice of open or mode can be seen in table 4 below is the level of competency needs to be an effective performing academics. Table 4. The Level of JCR for Academics Which are Effective Performance • what tools, information and other resources (for example training). • Keep people motivated and focused on work. resolve others . 8.3 • Influence by showing concern. • Using a style of communication that is straightforward and based on reason, shows concern for the other person's response to the acceptance of his ideas. • Lead by example, aligning one's own behavior with organizational expectations. • Adapting leadership styles to fit the situation and needs different people . 16.3 • Create the use of knowledge that is mastered to enhance economic and social development. • Advocates and Spreads New Technology • Actively goes out as a technical missionary . • Change agent to spread new technology within the company . International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdom Licensed under Creative Common Page 333 The results of competency level data processing table 4 can be explained that the competency requirements for academics to do the Trilogy Higher Education work include Teaching Learning, Research-publication and Community service. For example academics Achievement Orientation Competencies with level 2 needs, with behavior indicators Work with motivation to achieve high academic standards means lecturers are trying to work beyond the set standards, then they need to make specific changes in the system or in own work. The benefit Job Competencies Requirements (JCR) for academics the gap between the competency level held by academics and JCR will be a need for training g and development for the academics. In terms of HRM (Human Resource Management), the presence of JCR is easier and more practical because everything is counted clearly. This JCR and dictionary competency can be used to: 1. Knowledge Management, academics with similar competencies can jointly use existing knowledge in dictionary competency to exchange knowledge and practical experience and then develop that knowledge to be applied as a standard method for conducting Trilogy of HE. 2. Cross-functional and cross-border communication between departments & universities can be done more clearly and more accurately using standardized competency designations, so that it is more possible to utilize the abilities of academics within the university. 3. JCR can be used as a guideline for evaluating academic performance so that the assessment is based on two things namely behavioral attitudes and targets in carrying out their work duties. 4. Training Needs Analysis is based on the Competency gap between JCR and the Competency Level held by academics, thus the competencies needed are appropriate for the implementation of academic work tasks. 5. JCR as academics needs to be an awareness for every academician to be implemented, developed according to the dynamics of the work and can be used to carry out the HR management functions of academics at universities such as recruitment, selection, job analysis, performance appraisal, career planning, training, reward systems. The results of the Difference Test with SPSS version 22 namely the Difference Test with Mann Whitney can be seen in table 5. © Kusumastuti & Indriani Licensed under Creative Common Page 334 Tabel 5. The Difference Test Mann Whitney, Grouping Variable Gender No Competency Mann- Whitney U Asymp. Sig. (2- tailed No Competency Mann- Whitney U Asymp. Sig. (2- tailed 1 Emotional Self Awarenes 1632.500 .405 9 Networking 1773.000 .961 2 Self development 1678.000 .572 10 Communication 1638.000 .275 3 Achievement Orientation 1702.500 .662 11 Service Orientation 1770.500 .950 4 Planning& Organizing 1757.500 .894 12 Building Effective Team 1595.500 .310 5 Decision Making 1746.000 .849 13 Intellectual Acumen 1632.500 .405 6 Creative Thinking & Innovation 1769.000 .938 14 Developing Others 1678.000 .572 7 Organization Awareness 1696.500 .642 15 Up date ICT 1702.500 .652 8 Inspiration Leadership 1755.000 .884 16 Professional Services 1757.500 .894 Source : Research data From the results of the Mann Whitney test, the Sig. all competencies > 0.05, it can be concluded that there is no difference in competency needs between male and female academics. This means that to be effective academics with 16 competencies, these competencies can be used as development for both male and female academic evelopment. Academic / Lecturer competency restoration can be explained that a person's competency cannot be restored before he is aware that he lacks that competency. Therefore, in this research finding, academics need emotional self awareness competency & self development, especially with the technological challenges of the Industrial Revolution 4.0, these competencies need to play a role in changes in human resource management. Emotional self awareness competencies are owned by self awareness as a lecturer person, aware of the strengths of weakness, knowing the potential, aware of the effects of self on others and self development which is the ability of self and self-awareness to continue to develop themselves, lecturers need to have this competency, without any his orders continue to develop themselves for the sake of professionalism. Furthermore, academics / lecturers will automatically use their competencies for HEI's and for the future of the nation. So that introducing a competency-based approach, many experts have been proven to encourage future-oriented performance and build capabilities quickly at work and have an impact on organizational effectiveness . RESEARCH LIMITATIONS First, even though Higher Education was chosen by accreditation A, the sample size does not take into account the number of female and male respondents for the context in this research, so this limits the generalization of results. Second, appraisal of the effective performance of academics is the appraisal from individual academics themselves, not an appraisal from organization. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, United Kingdom Licensed under Creative Common Page 335 CONCLUSION Competency is an attitude of behavior that can be observed or behavior that can be benefited by others. Competence is energy that can be renewable, the more often it is used the more depressing. Research findings of 16 competencies as JCR Lecturers, both male and female become the most important part in encouraging effective and superior performance of lecturers and can be used for the development of lecturer professionalism so that they do not obsolete their professionalism or decaying. Restoration of competency begins with awareness first so that the professional development of the lecturer is not only enough training but through the never ending process, self-study, education, training and experience. Thus, the professional will be more durable to welcome the future of the interests of the nation and country, especially Indonesia, which has a diversity of cultures, education spread across the archipelago and demographic bonuses. Competencies can be used as language or information to find an expert in a particular field systematically, becoming Knowledge Management where fellow lecturers with similar competencies can jointly use existing knowledge in the definition, description or called Competency dictionary to exchange knowledge and practical experience and then developing this knowledge to be applied as a standard method, and communication across organizational functions can be done more clearly and more accurately using standardized competency designations. Finally competency can be utilized for the development of "Branding" and personal branding is a process that will bring one's skills, attitudes, personalities, and unique characteristics and then wrap it up into a competency that has power. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Directorate of Research and Community Service, Directorate General of Research and Technology Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (MoRTHE) which provided this research grant in accordance with Research Contract Number: 110 / SP2H / PPM / DRPM / 2019, March 8, 2019. REFERENCES Boyatzis, R.E. 2009. Competencies as a behavioral approach to emotional intelligence”, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 28 No. 9, pp. 749-70. Berger, L.A. and Berger, D.R. (Eds.). 2004 The Talent Management Handbook Creating Organizational Excellence by Identifying, Developing, and Promoting Your Best People, by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved, Manufactured in the United States of America, 0-07-141434-7. Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia. (2013). Indonesia Population Projection 2010-2035. In Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia. Badan Pusat Statistik, ISBN 9789790646063,Jakarta-Indonesia BPS - Statistics Indonesia.