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© 2022 JETIR May 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5 (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2205B95 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) k734 STRESS MANAGEMENT FOR LIBRARY PROFESSIONALS Dr. Chandramani Kailash Gajbhiye Librarian Manoharbhai Patel College of Arts, Commerce and Science Deori, Amgaon Road, Deori- 441901 Dist. Gondia Email. [email protected] Abstract Present paper discusses the concept, definition, types and sources of stress management in the workplace of Library Professionals and some remedies are suggested to overcome this problem. Stress has become a major issue for all people in society. The mental, physical, situational, and emotional state of mind is referred to as stress. This paper on stress management in libraries examines various aspects of stress in library professionals. It discusses library stress and the causes of it. It also discusses stress types, stress causes and symptoms, and stress management strategies. It also looked at the best ways for LIS professionals to deal with stress. However, there are numerous motivators as well as bottlenecks that influence professionals' participation in continuous professional development (CPD) activities. As a result of this topic, he must ensure that library professionals are well prepared and up to date on current trends in their jobs and duties. Keywords: Stress Management, Management, Library Professional Introduction: In our day to day life, we hear the word ‘Stress’ frequently. Every person we meet seems to be stressful due to certain circumstances. It has no relation with age, it is common in adults, senior citizens even in children Modern life equipped with technology is full of hassles, deadlines, frustrations and demands.. Generally, Stress is considered as something unrespectable happening or demands due to which we feel miserable and does not want to do. Biologically stress is said to be what happens to our body system while giving response to an event. The word stress was laid by Dr. Walter B. Cannon, a well known psychologist at Harvard almost 150 years ago. Stress is a way of responding to any kind of situation or demand. Stress is defined as the mental, physical, situational, and emotional reactions you have as a result of life's demands. Everyone suffers from stress. Since the twenty-first century, LIS professionals have faced ongoing challenges in the workplace. This is especially true for LIS professionals working in the digital library environment, not only because of the role they play within their libraries, but also because user expectations always seem to outstrip the library's capacity in terms of document, infrastructure facilities, finance staff, and so on. It is simply not possible to eliminate all sources of stress in the digital library workplace; however, library managers can manage stress among their teams to help reduce some of its consequences, such as poor performance. It is simply not possible to eliminate all sources of stress in the digital library workplace; however, library managers can manage stress among their teams to help reduce some of its consequences, such as low morale, poor performance, and team conflict. The best way to manage stress is to foster a supportive environment, recognise signs of stress, and address issues as they arise. © 2022 JETIR May 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5 (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2205B95 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) k735 Definition: According to Health Success Sites Stress can be defined in three ways  The first gives importance to environmental factors which work as a stimulator to initiate stress on the mind of a person.  The second important factor is giving response to a situation.  The third describes stress as a process that includes interaction of environment and response given to a event. (The Health Success Site) So, the stress is the amount of external factors, events that occur and reaction of an individual to that event in order to achieve a balance between these two. Review of Literature: Several studies have been done on job stress Covey (2021) explained that in some faculty of thought stress is regarded to be a relative term within the sense that what is irritating and trying to 1 person might create no distinction to a different. Among these studies very few studies have been done to assess the job stress on librarians such as Roose (2021) has found that 42 percent of the reference librarians experienced high stress and job burnout due to their adverse work environment. Neville (2022) has established that academic reference librarians and service staff were stressed because they were increasingly expected to provide information services. Wood (2022), using Hallbergs Stress Survey established that there is no evidence of unhealthy stress levels among the academic librarians. In this present article authors have discussed the causes, types, stress and certain remedies to cope with stress. Causes of Stress: Stress can be causes by a number of factors both outside the body and within. These factors may be professional or personal events occurring in daily life. Here we are concerned with the professional stress that is job stress. Jobs are an important part of our lives. They provide a source of income. These are important to fulfill our personal aims. Jobs also help us to build social networks. Even “dream” jobs have stressful deadlines, performance expectations, and other responsibilities. Around 90% of people today are suffering from job stress. Many of these stress come from lack of expertise in handling on general difficulties. Libraries, like many other institutions, have been undergoing rapid change over the last few years. The function and services of libraries have changed dramatically as a result of digital libraries. Professionals in the library and information sciences face a great deal of stress on a daily basis. The following are some of the factors that contribute to stress: a. Technological Stress: For library and information science professionals, the development and application of information technologies in libraries is a major source of stress. Obsolescence of existing hardware and software is a common phenomenon in almost all libraries due to the rapid change in computer hardware and software. Furthermore, it is difficult to keep up with changing technologies due to financial and technological constraints. Aside from the change in information storage media from print to electronic, then digital, storage space facilities have resulted. Denny (2001) investigated the aspects of librarians' techno stress as a result of the introduction of new technologies in the library field. b. Stress about job security: The use of Information and Communication Technologies has compelled library professionals to acquire new knowledge in addition to traditional library functions and services. On the contrary, there is limited opportunity for them to participate in in-service training programmes, higher education, refresher courses, and so on, which has increased a significant amount of stress among library professionals. Furthermore, the increasing intrusion and appointment of information technology professionals into the library profession has caused library professionals to be concerned about their job security in the future. c. Physical Stress: The Digital Library Environment has altered the physical structure of the workplace. Sitting in front of computers for long periods of time, working in air-conditioned environments, and other factors have contributed to physical stress and illness. Mental stress can be traced back to a person's mental state of mind, which includes © 2022 JETIR May 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5 (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2205B95 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) k736 expectations, fears, and regrets, among other things. Situational stress is caused by interaction with the outside world, such as interaction with modern technologies, role as a library manager, and so on. Stress, according to Routray and Satpathy (2007), has both physical and emotional effects on people and can cause both positive and negative feelings. Individual performance does not have to suffer as a result of stress. Some stress is necessary to generate enthusiasm, creativity, and productivity. Stress can be beneficial or harmful. Employees are motivated by beneficial stress. This is referred to as Eustress. The negative stress is that which causes irritability and a loss of work spirit. This is referred to as Distress. Stress, according to Lehnert (2002), is a complex, dynamic process of interaction between a person and his or her life. He went on to say that it is the way we react physically, mentally, and emotionally to life's various conditions, changes, and demands. Sources and Types of Stress in Libraries: The Library environment has seen major phases of change from traditional library to automated library to digital library phase. With these changes the nature, source, facilities and work culture of library professionals have witnessed major changes. Earlier librarian had only manual work to be performed but now with the conventional work they also have to carry out new activities. (e.g. Automation, online searching and retrieval etc.). Such type of different works at a time change in nature of services has increased the workload of library professionals. During the process of adjusting with these changes library professionals have developed several types of stress. Many studies found that, in addition to a heavy workload affecting workers' health, there were other factors and sources causing increased pressure and stress on library professionals. Libraries, like many other institutions, have been undergoing rapid change over the last few years. The digital library environment has resulted in a significant shift in library functions and services. As a result, library and information science professionals have been subjected to a significant amount of pressure and stress in their various events, which are responsible for stress factors. Some of the reasons and factors include job dissatisfaction, poor management, a heavy workload, and too much responsibility in libraries. Working long hours, passive participation in decision-making, discrimination, and working in hazardous conditions are all factors that contribute to stress among library professionals. Schneider (1991) identified life stressors such as marriage, divorce, financial obligations, the death of a loved one, job loss, emotional problems, chronic illness, feat and uncertainty, attitude and perceptions, unrealistic expectations, and so on as additional sources of stress in libraries. As a result, the following factors and reasons are considered to be putting pressures and stress on library professionals in the twenty-first century: 1. Emergence of Technology: ICT has emerged as a quick, powerful, and efficient mode of communication. The change has an impact on libraries as well. The work of automation and service provision using computer technology is both developmental and physical for library professionals. 2. Changes in the Library Environment: Many libraries have transitioned from manual to automated systems, and more recently to newer, more sophisticated digital library systems. "Academic librarians, paraprofessional staff, and administrators are all susceptible to experiencing the effects of stress burnout due to the nature of academia, the stress of providing customer service to students, and the pressures of trying to meet promotion and tenure requirements" (Huprich, 2007). 3. Library Change Physical facility: Issues or changes in physical facilities have become a critical issue in today's libraries. With the increased use of electronic formats, library authorities are hesitant to expand facilities to meet rising space demands. Some libraries are actually moving into new facilities with less space or losing space to other functions. However, hybrid libraries that house both print and non-print documents face significant challenges due to changes in physical library facilities. 4. Lack of Expertise: Library automation, provision of automated services, and online retrieval need expertise in technical system is the need of the hour for library staff in which they feel that they are lagging behind produces negative feeling and stress in them. © 2022 JETIR May 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5 (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2205B95 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) k737 5. Reduce staff strength: Working with fewer people has become more common in workplaces, which has become a source of stress with the increasing workload. Restructuring, layoffs, loss of staff positions, and doing more with fewer people have become more common, adding to the stress of an increasing workload. Further issues, such as a member of the library community's illness, disability, or death, have a growing impact on coworkers. 6. Budget: The increase in the budget is another type of load for library professionals as there a is increase in budget structure due to emergence costly ICT technology. The librarian has to purchase printed as well as electronic and online books and journals to satisfy the needs of current generation. The procedure for the same sometimes becomes stress for the library staff. 7. Changing form of documents: Almost 90% of the sources are available today in print as well electronic or CD Rom format. In addition to hard copies it is necessary for librarians to purchase and maintain the records of these different types of sources separately which has increased the labor work as well mental stress of library staff. 8. Changing User Demands: With the changing environment of the world into globalised society the demands or users are also changing such as they need fast access to information without wasting time and need up to date current information. The information explosion on internet also has enhanced the work of library staff. So, development of strategy to save the time of user required lot of mental work which may cause stress. How to Manage Stress: The first step is planning for development of strategies is gaining knowledge of how stress operates in one’s life and identifying type of stress which is ruling over individuals mind. As far as the changes from manual to digital are concerned that can be avoided by dividing the timing hours to perform certain work. For technology equipments working problems, staff must be allowed to undergo training, attend workshops so that they could be able to solve technical problems at their own, Library managers must continually observe the physical as well as technical process to know and develop alternatives for their stress and strain. Orientation programs must be organized for staff from time to time with several themes (specially related to newly invented technologies) which helps to reduce anxiety about lacking skills and knowledge. Some recreational activities also must be planned by library manager (especially during any particular festival/ occasion). These types of remedies develop enthusiasm and decreases monotony of daily work among library staff. Library manager must adopt nature of giving recognition to their staff among all to make the staff develop sense of respect for the work they are doing. In the late 1960’s, Herbert Benson, found that there was a counterbalancing mechanism to the stress response. The relaxation response could be a physical state of deep rest that changes the physical and emotional responses to fret (e.g. decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, rate of breathing, and muscle tension). It is advisable to sit quietly in a comfortable position by closing your eyes. Deeply relax all of your muscles, starting at your feet and progressing up to your face. Keep them relax. Breathe through your nose, become responsive to your respiratory. Breathe simply and naturally, continue for ten to twenty minutes. Don’t worry concerning whether or not you're flourishing in achieving a deep level of relaxation. Maintain a passive perspective and allow relaxation to occur at its own pace. Once distracting thought occur, attempt to ignore them by not abode upon them and come to continuation “one”. With follow, the response ought to keep company with very little effort. Follow the technique once or double daily, however not inside 2 hours when any meal, since the biological process processes appear to interfere with the stimulus of the relief Response. Conclusion: When something happens to us we decide whether it is positive depending upon our coping skills and we name it stress. Effective individual stress management and coping stress is very important. Applying several strategies for stress management assist librarians to gain knowledge, self awareness and develop skills. On part of Library Manager he must make the staff members aware of the sources of stress in their work and identity the skills that they need to cope with the stress. Yoga is best powerful medium to fight with daily stress. After learning this strategy on feels more positive day by day and happier person in the world. Only 15 minute exercise daily help to manage stress in routine life. © 2022 JETIR May 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5 (ISSN-2349-5162) JETIR2205B95 Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) k738 References: 1. Kaur, Parminder Jit. 2019. Stress Management in Libraries, Library Progress International Journal 39(1) available at 2. Vij Rajiv. 2017. Management of Pressures and Stress on Library Professionals in 21st Century, International Journal of Research in Humanities and Soc. Science, 5(3) 3. Cox. 1985. Handbook of Stress, Coping, and Health: Implications for Nursing. Virginia Hill Rice 4. Elisa F. Topper. 2007. "Stress in the library workplace", New Library World, Vol.108 Iss: 11/12, pp.561 - 564 5. George M. Eberhart, George M. 2010. The Librarian's Book of Lists, ISBN: 9780838910634 Publication Date: 2010-05-01 6. Kinman, Gail. 1998. Pressure Points: A survey in to the causes and consequences of occupational stress in UK academic and related staff. London: Association of University Teachers. Pp.1-20. 7. Kumar, V., Kumar, U., & Persaud, A. 1999. Building Technological Capability through Importing Technology: The Case of Indonesian Manufacturing Industry. Journal of Technology Transfer, 24, 81-96. 8. Lehnert, Paul. 2002. “Stress Management” Baylor Health Care system. In 9. Liz Farler, Judith Broady-Preston. 2012. "Workplace stress in libraries:a case study",Aslib Proceedings, Vol. 64 Iss: 3, pp.225 – 240 10. McClellan, E. 2011. “Stress and cataloging paraprofessionals in academic and public libraries in Florida”, The Southeastern Librarian, Vol. 59 No. 1, 11. Ajala, E. B. 2013. Work-related Stress among Librarians and Information Professionals in a Nigerian University available at 12. Benson Herbert. 2013. How to Elicit the Relaxation Response, Step by Step. Available at 13. Bunge, C. A. 2013. Stress in the Library Workplace available at accessed 14. What is Stress Management? accessed on 15/01/2013

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