Stress Management for Safety

Stress Management for Safety (PDF)

2022 • 4 Pages • 305.54 KB • English
Posted June 30, 2022 • Submitted by pdf.user

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Summary of Stress Management for Safety

Stress Management for Safety Oscar Rodriguez-Franco MPH, MBA, CIH April 2019 1 THE PROBLEM In 2017, many Americans stated they are stressed about at least one issue facing our nation, and a majority of adults (59 %) said they consider this the lowest point in our nation’s history that they can remember (APA, 2017). Compared to average adults, Generation Z adults were more worried about work, money, and health related concerns and equally worried about the US economy (APA, 2018). Stress affects both individuals and the organizations (Michie, 2002): o Individuals suffer threats to:  Health.  Well being / quality of life.  Functioning / goal achievement.  Self-esteem /confidence.  Personal Development. o Organizations are affected by:  Increased absenteeism and turnover.  Reduced quantity and quality of work.  Reduced job satisfaction and morale.  Problems of recruitment.  Poor communication and increase conflict. Three useful models of stress are (Romas and Sharma, 2017): o Response-based model (General Adaptation Syndrome: Alarm, resistance, exhaustion). o Event-based model (Social Readjustment Rating Scale – estimated amount of change or readjustment need per event). o Interactional model of stress (Four stage model – stressor/primary appraisal/secondary appraisal/ effect). Job stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker (NIOSH, 1999). The NIOSH model of job stress includes: o Stressful job conditions:  Nature of work.  Management style.  Work roles.  Interpersonal relationships.  Career concerns.  Environmental conditions. o Individual and situational factors:  Balance between work and life or personal life. Stress Management for Safety Oscar Rodriguez-Franco MPH, MBA, CIH April 2019 2  A support network of friends and coworkers.  A relaxed and positive outlook of life. o Risk of injury and illness:  Short-lived or infrequent episodes of stress pose little risk. But when stressful situations go unresolved, the body is kept in a constant state of activation, which increases the rate of wear and tear to biological systems. Ultimately, fatigue or damage results, and the ability of the body to repair and defend itself can become seriously compromised. As a result, the risk of injury or disease escalates (NIOSH, 1999). Stress, worry, and impulsivity are related. A study involving military recruits confirmed that worry is related to impulsivity and supported the notion that lacking mindfulness and self-compassion in excessive worriers, may lead to impulsivity (Mantzios, 2014). Individuals who scored high in motor and cognitive impulsivity and non planning, as well as scoring low in future orientation, were found to engage in counterproductive work behaviors related to near misses and accidents such as (Bowman-Upton, 1992): o Violating safety rules and procedures. o Ignoring safety warnings. o Operating machine carelessly. o Rendering safety devices inoperative. o Working under the influence of drugs/alcohol. Exposure to workplace aggression, due to impulsivity and other factors, was associated with a host of negative psychological, emotional, and physiological outcomes, which also predicted employee underreporting of accidents and near misses (Jiang et al., 2018). Workplace aggression was a stressor found to be positively related with negative safety outcomes such as accidents, near misses, as well as low participation and compliance with safety expectations. This relationship was mediated by resource depletion in the form of cognitive failure and rumination, and moderated by mindfulness and a positive safety climate (Demsky, 2015). STRESS MANAGEMENT FOR SAFETY Job stress factors are considered occupational hazards such as other ergonomic, physical, chemical, and biological hazards, and can be addressed using a safety and health management system. OSHA’s Recommended Practices for Safety and Health Programs is an applicable model for the management of job stress (OSHA 2016). An example of organizational and worker focused interventions for stress management are (NIOSH (2008): o Organizational:  Workload should be in line with workers’ capabilities and resources.  Workers’ roles and responsibilities should be clearly defined.  Employees should enjoy opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs.  Uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects should be addressed by the employer.  Opportunities for social interaction among workers should be provided. Stress Management for Safety Oscar Rodriguez-Franco MPH, MBA, CIH April 2019 3 o Worker-focused interventions:  Training in coping strategies.  Progressive relaxation.  Biofeedback.  Cognitive-behavioral techniques.  Time management.  Interpersonal skills. Stress Management Principles (Romas and Sharma, 2017): o It is not the stressor but our perception of the stress that is important. o We need to become aware before considering change. o We must make relaxation a part of our lives. o We must think first before passing judgment. o Balancing our anger balances our lives. o It is advised to enjoy balanced meals at regular times, and cherish the gift. o It is advised to start a physical activity program, and keep exercising consistently. The Big Four of mental toughness (Divine, M. (2015): o Arousal control using proper breathing techniques. o Positive internal dialogue. o Mental rehearsal. o Micro planning (goal setting). RECOMMENDATIONS o Keep track - Write down what happens when you get stressed at work, including how you feel, how you react and how you calm down. This can help you identify patterns among your stressors, the American Psychological Association (APA) notes, which may help you determine how you react to them in the future. o Take care of yourself - Whether you exercise, read or work on creating better sleep habits, try and fight stress by making healthy choices. o Create boundaries - Do not let work consume your life. APA recommends creating rules, such as not checking your work email at home or answering business calls at the dinner table. o Teach yourself to relax - APA advises looking into meditation and deep-breathing exercises to help you relax. Try these techniques for a few minutes each day. o Reach out to your supervisor - If you feel overwhelmed, ask for help. Let your supervisor know what is causing your stress and work together on an action plan to help resolve or lessen these issues. o Ask for help - Reach out to family and friends for help if you need it. Also, find out if your employer has stress management resources, such as an employee assistance program (NSC, 2015). Stress Management for Safety Oscar Rodriguez-Franco MPH, MBA, CIH April 2019 4 References APA (2017). Stress in America. The State of our Nation. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from: APA (2018). Stress in America. Generation Z. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from: Bowman-Upton, N. (1992). Impulsivity and work-related accidents. Dissertation 9307299 Demsky, C. A. (2015). Workplace Aggression: A Multi-Study Examination of Work and Non-work Consequences. Dissertation. 3712249 Divine, M. (2015). Unbeatable Mind. Forging Mental Toughness. 3rd Edition. p 252 Jiang, L. et al. (2018). Voices carry: Effects of verbal and physical aggression on injuries and accident reporting. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 118, 190-199 Mantzios, M. (2014). Exploring the Relationship between Worry and Impulsivity in Military Recruits: The Role of Mindfulness and Self-compassion as Potential Mediators. Stress and Health, 30, 397–404 Michie, S. (2002).Causes and Management of Stress at Work. Occup Environ Med, 59, 67–72 NIOSH (1999). Stress at Work. NIOSH 99-101. Retrieved from: 101/default.html NIOSH (2008). Exposure to Stress. Occupational Hazards in Hospitals. NIOSH 2008-136. Retrieved from: NSC (2015). Manage Workplace Stress. National Safety Council. Retrieved from: OSHA (2016). Recommended Practices for Safety and Health Programs. OSHA 3885. Retrieved from: Romas, J. A., Sharma, M. (2017). Practical Stress Management. A Comprehensive Workbook. Elsevier. 226 p. Bibliography 1. Elkin, A. (1999). Stress Management for Dummies. 336 p. ISBN-13: 978-0764551444 2. Greenberg, M. (2016). The Stress Proof Brain. Master Your Emotional Response to Stress Using Mindfulness & Neuroplasticity. New Harbinger Publications, Inc. 242 p. ISBN 9781626252660 3. Divine, M. (2015). Unbeatable Mind. Forging Mental Toughness. 3rd Edition. 277 p. ISBN 978-0-9861311-0-3

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