76 UIJRT | United International Journal for Research & Technology | Volume 03, Issue 03, 2022 | ISSN: 2582-6832 All rights are reserved by UIJRT.COM. Time Management Practices and Challenges of Social Studies Educators During COVID-19 Pandemic Mary Antfe O. Lipawen1 and Marie Fe D. de Guzman2 1Botolan National High School, Botolan, Zambales, Philippines 2Graduate School, President Ramon Magsaysay State University, Iba, Zambales, Philippines Abstract— This study identified the time management practices (time management behaviors and time management skills) and time management challenges of Social Studies educators during COVID-19 pandemic. The study was conducted at High Schools in Zone 2, DepEd Division of Zambales, Philippines during the 4th Quarter of the academic year 2020-2021. This study utilized survey questionnaire as the main data collection/gathering technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis and statistical treatment of data. Findings of the study revealed that the Social Studies teacher respondents strongly agreed on the appropriate time management behavior at work during the pandemic. They also strongly agreed on the appropriate time management skills at work during the pandemic. They perceived that challenges sometimes occurred in time management at work during the COVID19 pandemic. Moreover, a significant difference on the perceived time management practices at work during the pandemic and a significant difference on the perceived occurrence of challenges in time management at work during the pandemic were established. A. proposed framework for an enhance time management practices of Social Studies teachers during the pandemic was developed. The present study presented a model/framework for an enhance time management practices during the pandemic to the Department and School Heads, Supervisors, and Education Specialist/Curriculum Planners of the Division of Zambales for further review, critiquing, funding, and future implementation. Keywords— Time Management Behaviors, Time Management Skills, Time Management Practices, Challenges, Social Studies Educators, COVID-19 Pandemic. INTRODUCTION The nations who took care about time and made their policies and planning according the needs and the requirements of their people and the competition of nations at global level, they became as the developed nations and they also acquired, saved, popularized and made their strong identification among the countries of the world (Wright, 2012 and Sahito, et al., 2019). Wasted time cannot be replaced with increasing demands at workplace and home most especially during the pandemic (Garhammer, 2002 in Sahito, 2019). Like other professions, teaching must subject itself to an organized and objective planning, preparation and execution of the lessons in order to direct the learners towards the different learning episodes (Fleming, 2011). It is in this concept of teaching that a teacher is committed to endure teaching responsibilities against all odds. According to Ansis (2017), based from the CNN- Philippines, one of the stressful jobs in the country is teaching. A large share of respondents answered poor management at work and being behind schedule are the reasons. Time management is one of the most common issues in the way of productivity under normal circumstances. But we are operating in strange times. Working from home automatically comes with its own additional time management challenges under regular circumstances. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in unprecedented actions in the area of education (Klapproth, Federkeil, Heinschke & Jungmann, 2020). Education delivery system is one of the fields severely affected by Covid-19 pandemic nationwide. This forced-distance-learning applied to all education levels and all schools affected. In the beginning of national lockdown, all vocational school students are advised to study independently from home (Ilhamdaniah. & Megayanti, 2020). Neither the parents nor the teachers were well prepared to master the multiple challenges these changes imposed on them. Many parents experienced unstructured task transmission by teachers and a lack of teacher feedback (Wildemann & Hosenfeld, 2020), whereas teachers struggled with keeping their relationships to their students and missed advice and support from their schools (Goetz, 2020; and Anger & Plünnecke, 2020). Felton (2009) said that time management is the process of planning and exercising conscious control of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. Further, Cotrell (2013) defines time management as a juggling act of various demands of study, social life, employment, family, and personal interests and commitments with the finiteness of time. According to Bilbao (2009), scheduling, goal setting, prioritizing tasks, managing paperwork, and managing interruptions may be executed by the teachers to meet the demands of 77 UIJRT | United International Journal for Research & Technology | Volume 03, Issue 03, 2022 | ISSN: 2582-6832 All rights are reserved by UIJRT.COM. their job. These save their time without compromising the quality of teaching and service. Further, Forsyth (2010) suggested that keeping work–life balance is one of necessitates to efficiently and effectively manage the limited resources and available time. Theoretically, the variable of time management has direct influence on teachers’ efficiency and effectiveness at work and students learning outcomes. If this time management aspect is not taken into a serious consideration during distance learning, its negative impact on learning outcomes is inevitable. With effective time management practices, teachers can increase their productivity and provide a better education for their students. This justified the importance of this study. Effective time management increases an individual's confidence and makes him self-assured. Fleming (2011) said that individuals who can accomplish tasks within the stipulated time frame can make their life improved and balanced not only in their organization as well as amongst their peers and family. With the aforementioned importance and benefits of well- managed time to the educators, the researcher came up with a study proposal to reveal the time management practices of Social Studies faculty members (Zone 2, Division of Zambales) during the distance learning caused by COVID 19 pandemic. It is the utmost intention of the researcher to strengthen their time management practices which will help them to become more effective and efficient professionals and individuals. Social Studies Teachers would understand further elements/dimensions of time management practices (behaviors and skills). High achiever teachers can manage their time exceptionally well. By using, utilizing and employing proper/appropriate time management behavior, skills and techniques in this section, they can further improve time utilization in time on pressures such as during remote/distance learning in the pandemic. Consistency of teachers’ proper time management practices help students focus, be flexible and keep students’ experience and personality in mind. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study identified the time management practices and time management challenges of educators during COVID-19 pandemic, school year 2020-2021 as perceived by the Social Studies teachers of secondary school of Zone 2, DepEd Division of Zambales. The following research questions were answered: 1. How may the teacher-respondents describe the Time Management of Social Studies teachers at work during the pandemic in terms of: 1.1 Time Management Behaviors; and 1.2 Time Management Skills? 2. How may the teacher-respondents describe the occurrence of challenges in Time Management at work during the COVID19 pandemic in terms of: 2.1. Unclear Procedures; 2.2. Unstable Transitions; and 2.3. Deficient Strategic Time Management? 3. Is there a significant difference on the perceived time management practices at work during the pandemic? 4. Is there a significant difference on the perceived occurrence of challenges in time management at work during the pandemic? METHODOLOGY In this research study, the researcher used descriptive design of research. Descriptive research is defined as a research method that describes the characteristics of the population or phenomenon that is being studied (Cabot, 2020). This study attempted to identify the time management practices and time management challenges of educators during COVID-19 pandemic as perceived by the Social Studies teachers follows logical and careful classification and description of data. A total population of one hundred sixteen (116) Junior High School Social Studies teachers are the respondents of the study. The teachers were employed in the fifteen (15) secondary and integrated schools of three (3) Districts (Botolan District, Iba District and Palauig District) of Zone 2, DepEd Division of Zambales. items/indicators of the questionnaire were based and patterned from the questionnaires of Lualhati (2019), Sahito, et al., (2019), Grissom (2020) and Ilhamdaniah & Megayanti (2020). The survey questionnaire has two (2) parts. First part gathered the perceptions Time Management Practices of Social Studies Teachers at Work. The respondents assessed the indicators of part 1 using a four-point scale from 4 (Strongly Agree), 3 (Agree), 2 (Disagree), and 1 (Strongly Disagree). Second part focused on assessing time management challenges encountered. The respondents assessed the indicators of Part 2 using a four-point scale from 4 (Always), 3 (Sometimes), 2 (Seldom), and 1 (Never). A set of subject matter experts reviewed and checked the indicators/questions of the research instrument for clarity and directedness to minimize the occurrences of errors. In order to assess the reliability of the indicators of the research instrument, Social Studies teachers of Cabangan National High School, Cabangan, Zambales 78 UIJRT | United International Journal for Research & Technology | Volume 03, Issue 03, 2022 | ISSN: 2582-6832 All rights are reserved by UIJRT.COM. were invited as subjects for the pilot study. A pilot test examined whether all instructions in the questionnaire given can be understood and to make sure all respondents understand the research objectives. The Cronbach’s Alpha Values for Time Management Behavior was 0.767 with qualitative interpretation of Acceptable; Time Management Skill, 0.892, with qualitative interpretation of Good. Time Management Challenges, 0. 0.834, with qualitative interpretation of Good The researchers secured a written permit from the Schools Division Superintendent of the Division of Zambales for the conduct of the study and the distribution of survey questionnaire to the school- respondents. The researchers also sought the help of the School Principals/Heads in the distribution of the survey questionnaires to the Social Studies teacher- respondents. Survey questionnaires were administered by the researchers to the respondents personally (face- to-face) and through google forms. The objectives of the study were explained first to the respondents and the confidentiality of their responses were guaranteed. The administration of the instruments was conducted on the 4th Quarter of the school year 2020-2021 and the retrieval was done after a week. Descriptive statistical techniques and inferential statistics were used as statistical tools for the treatment of data. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1. Perceived Time Management Practices of Social Studies Teachers at Work during the Pandemic 1.1 Time Management Behaviors Table 1 presents the perceived Time Management Behavior Practices of Social Studies teachers at work during the pandemic. Indicator 6, I complete my most important task when I feel most energetic” obtained a weighted mean of 3.69 rank 1st. In the height of the global COVID19 pandemic Social Studies teachers strongly agreed that they are flexible and capable of adapting the pedagogical change in teaching learning process. Social Studies teachers encounter various or multiple tasks given by the school or authority in response to deliver quality education in the new normal. Table 1: Time Management Behavior of Social Studies Teachers during the Pandemic Time Management Behaviors Weighted Mean Qualitative Rating Rank 1. I establish and consolidate personal and career goals 3.51 Strongly Agree 2 2. I make use of daily planner to record important tasks 3.47 Strongly Agree 3.5 3. I rank my priorities daily from most to least important 3.47 Strongly Agree 3.5 4. I have adequate time to be with my friends and loved ones 3.07 Agree 14 5. I’m aware of my energy levels everyday 3.26 Strongly Agree 10 6. I complete my most important task when I feel most energetic 3.69 Strongly Agree 1 7. I schedule time for interruptions 3.28 Strongly Agree 9 8. I reward myself for the things I accomplish 3.40 Strongly Agree 8 9. I set limits by saying “I will not do that right now” 3.17 Agree 11 10. I break the task into manageable and bite size pieces 3.43 Strongly Agree 6 11. I make language of my goal to reflect an action 3.41 Strongly Agree 7 12. I don’t want to be perceived as weak and in need of help 3.15 Agree 12 13. I tactfully accept and reject request as soon as possible 2.95 Agree 15 14. I don’t believe I can depend on others to help me 3.11 Agree 13 15. I have a clearly define work and household duties 3.46 Strongly Agree 5 Overall Weighted Mean 3.32 Strongly Agree In spite of confronting many tasks and mixed-up routine such as preparing/developing of video lesson, slide presentation and additional learning materials/resources for students, preparation of printed Self -learning Modules (SLM) and/or Guided Learning Activity Kit (GLAK), creating Weekly home learning plan (WHLP), developing Written, Performance and Authentic Task, school forms to fill out and other basic organizational and operational chores. The Social Studies teacher- respondent strongly agreed that they exerted immense effort to fulfill and complete their task and duties in timely manner especially when they are in a high level of energy wherein, they stay more focus and motivated. According to Grissom, Kalogrides & Loeb (2011), human behavior is a function in part of how much control one perceives he or she has over that behavior. Positive time attitudes indicate that a person is oriented 79 UIJRT | United International Journal for Research & Technology | Volume 03, Issue 03, 2022 | ISSN: 2582-6832 All rights are reserved by UIJRT.COM. towards using their time constructively (Grissom & Loeb, 2011 and Grissom, 2020). Indicator 1 “I establish and consolidate personal and career goals” obtained a weighted mean of 3.51 rank 2nd. For Social Studies teachers achieving both personal and career goals are hard work. In this time of pandemic, Social Studies teachers strongly agreed that a work-life balance can contribute to their overall well-being and makes them more productive and dynamic in their career and profession. Social Studies teachers creates learning opportunities for all students amidst COVID19 pandemic, they motivate students and push them to move forward, to become better despite the challenges in remote/distance learning. Teachers find ways for feedbacking and create lines of communication between students and parents. Social Studies teachers also support community of educators and stakeholders in these challenging times. Accordingly, working without goals and targets in an organization would be similar to a situation where the captain of the ship loses his way in the sea. Set targets for yourself and make sure they are realistic ones and achievable (Bubb & Jones, 2020 and Burrus, et al., 2017). Moreover, time management which include the ability to set achievable goals, identify priorities, monitor one’s own progress, and remain organized can lead to more effective positive individual outcomes (Britton & Tesser, 1991 as cited in Grissom, 2020). The overall weighted mean for the perceived Time Management Behavior of Social Studies teachers at work during the pandemic is 3.32 interpreted as Strongly Agree. 1.2 Time Management Skills Table 2: Time Management Skill of Social Studies Teachers during the Pandemic Time Management Skills Weighted Mean Qualitative Rating Rank 1. I plan my day before I start it 3.46 Strongly Agree 3.5 2. I make a list of the things I have to do each day 3.46 Strongly Agree 3.5 3. I make a schedule of the activities I have to work 3.47 Strongly Agree 2 4. I write a set of daily goals for myself 3.30 Strongly Agree 9 5. I spend my time each day planning 3.02 Agree 13 6. I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish for the day 3.50 Strongly Agree 1 7. I have an explicit set of goals for the current week or month 3.43 Strongly Agree 5 8. I find myself continuing in unproductive routines or activities 3.17 Agree 11 9. I delegate minor issues to assistant or other staff 2.60 Agree 15 10. I make the most constructive use of my time 3.16 Agree 12 11. I set my priorities and honor these priorities 3.42 Strongly Agree 6 12. I find myself working on reports the night before they are due 2.86 Agree 14 13. I organize co-curricular activities 3.41 Strongly Agree 7 14. I rely on assistant/staff to screen out less important issues 3.20 Agree 10 15. I limit the amount of time I spend on routine paperwork 3.39 Strongly Agree 8 Overall Weighted Mean 3.26 Strongly Agree Table 2 presents the perceived Time Management Skill of Social Studies teachers during the pandemic. Indicator 6 “I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish for the day” obtained a weighted mean of 3.50 rank 1st, and was rated by the teachers as strongly agreed. Social Studies teachers most common daily accomplishment in school in this new normal education are as follows; plan lessons (WHLP) effectively, develop and organize instruction and assessment, keep up on the latest development, taking attendance, recording grades, making copies, document, track and monitor student progress, relay/present information to parents and work with school administrator. Planning is a process of setting and determining goals and what activities must be done to make it happen. Planning has benefits in carrying out activities, namely the goals become clearer, more objective and rational (Goetz, 2020 and Goldring, et al., 2018). Prioritize the tasks as per their importance and urgency. Know the difference between important and urgent work. Identify which tasks should be done within a day, which all should be done within a month and so on. Tasks which are most important should be done earlier (Daniel, 2020). Indicator 3, I make a schedule of the activities I have to work obtained a weighted mean of 3.47 rank 2nd. Social Studies teachers strongly agreed that having an effective schedule of activities and tasks before putting it in action helps them boost their productivity during the 80 UIJRT | United International Journal for Research & Technology | Volume 03, Issue 03, 2022 | ISSN: 2582-6832 All rights are reserved by UIJRT.COM. remote/distance education. This will guide them in determining priorities, spend the right time on the right things, reminds of forthcoming deadlines and achieving the desired goals. When Social Studies teachers design and upright to a schedule, they establish a routine. As a result of this skills, Social Studies teachers are becoming more organized and stricter in time and they can resist uncertainty. For them, a consistent schedule spends less time in planning, preparing and decision making so that they won’t be able to spend/ add hours (overtime) to a certain task. Making a schedule also encourages Social Studies teachers to stop wasting time and stock in unproductive activities. According to Horng, Klasik & Loeb (2016), planning is important so that someone can make choices for the work he will do, doing priority setting to find out which work needs to be done first. Planning is a process of setting and determining goals and what activities must be done to make it happen. Planning has benefits in carrying out activities, namely the goals become clearer, more objective and rational. The overall weighted mean for the perceived Time Management Skills of Social Studies teachers at work during the pandemic is 3.26 interpreted as Strongly Agree. Perceived Occurrence of Challenges in Time Management at Work during the COVID19 Pandemic 2.1 Unclear Procedures Table 3: Occurrence of Unclear Procedure Challenges in Time Management at Work during the COVID19 Pandemic Unclear Procedures I encounter challenges/difficulties in management of my time when: Weighted Mean Qualitative Rating Ran k 1. …I don’t have defined procedures, processes and plans 2.85 Sometimes 3 2. … I do many things at the same time or do multitasking 3.50 Always 1 3. … I start the day late, end into rushing throughout the day 2.31 Seldom 5 4. … I seldom schedule tasks, completing only some less effective tasks 2.73 Sometimes 4 5. … I make excuses of not getting down to the real work 2.17 Seldom 7 6. … I have no idea what to expect on a daily basis 2.22 Seldom 6 7. … I have tasks which are overwhelming and require the same level of dedication 2.96 Sometimes 2 Overall Weighted Mean 2.68 Sometimes Table 3 shows the perceived Occurrence of Unclear Procedure Challenges in Time Management at Work during the COVID19 Pandemic. Indicator 2, …I do many things at the same time or do multitasking obtained a weighted mean of 3.50 rank 1st. Social Studies teachers always do many things. They are ultimate multi taskers. It is evident that they are juggling to meet several works, activities, demands and responsibilities. Social Studies teachers rotate their concentration smoothly and completely from one activity to another. In order to do this successfully, they must be able to prioritize tasks and address the most critical and pressing demands. According to Goetz (2020), multitasking is an effective way to manage time. It can make those tasks take longer than they normally would. Setting priorities is the most important part of management. People do not always have same tasks according to importance, urgency and weight. Some are more important, others are more urgent, etc. (Goetz, 2020 and Davidson, 2016). Driven by COVID19 pandemic and remote distance learning, Social Studies teachers’ task in a new normal day is to teach virtual/online, engage students, assess performance, scoring/ grading, reports, analytics, mark lists, attendance sheets, links, struggling with technology, drown with emails, messages and calls from principals, co-teacher, parents, and students. Indicator 7, … I have tasks which are overwhelming and require the same level of dedication obtained a weighted mean of 2.17 rank 2nd. Sometimes Social Studies teachers experienced /felt overwhelmed by the number of tasks they need to finish in school/ classroom during remote or distance learning in pandemic time. For Social Studies teachers may felt overwhelmed most at the beginning of the school year (curriculum requirement, virtual classroom, first day of school, programs, list of students, distribution retrieval of modules and others). On the other hand, at the end of the school year, teachers felt overwhelmed too with various forms, reports, moving up, graduation ceremony etc. Time is a scarce resource. Someone must make decisions about how to allocate their time among competing demands. Time-use decisions are important for effective leadership, as evidenced by the relationship between time use and outcomes (Ilhamdaniah & Megayanti, 2020 and Grissom, Kalogrides & Loeb, 2012). Management of activity required planning for the activities to be carried out. Planning is a process of setting and determining goals and what activities must 81 UIJRT | United International Journal for Research & Technology | Volume 03, Issue 03, 2022 | ISSN: 2582-6832 All rights are reserved by UIJRT.COM. be done to make it happen. Planning has benefits in carrying out activities, namely the goals become clearer, more objective and rational (Goldring, et al., 2018). The overall weighted mean for the perceived Occurrence of Unclear Procedure Challenges in Time Management at Work during the COVID19 Pandemic is 2.68 interpreted as Sometimes. 2.2 Unstable Transitions Table 4: Occurrence of Unstable Transition Challenges in Time Management at Work during the COVID19 Pandemic Unstable Transitions I encounter challenges/difficulties in management of my time when: Weighted Mean Qualitative Rating Ran k 1. … I fail to manage destructions and interruptions in workflow 2.75 Sometimes 2 2. … I miscalculate my time and energy to accomplish the task 2.58 Sometimes 5 3. … I worry too much about changes and future events and tasks 2.86 Sometimes 1 4. … I lose track and find myself doing a bundle of low priority things 2.72 Sometimes 4 5. … I’m confused about the next activity (work-related or household) 2.73 Sometimes 3 6. … I do not adjust my time schedule to meet my target 2.54 Sometimes 6 7. … I do not adjust with interruptions and disturbances 2.35 Seldom 7 Overall Weighted Mean 2.65 Sometimes Table 4 shows the perceived occurrence of unstable transition challenges in time management at work during the COVID19 pandemic. Indicator 3, …I worry too much about changes and future events and tasks obtained a weighted mean of 2.86 rank 1st, Social Studies teachers of the present study perceived that sometimes when they are in a new situation (e.g., remote or distance learning) or facing confusing circumstances it is normal for them to feel worried about what the future may hold. These feelings sometimes help them anticipate what may come and may even motivate them. For Social Studies teachers, it is normal to worry sometime because it is a natural response to many changes, situations and circumstances for example due to COVID19 pandemic sudden closure of schools had happened, that why Social Studies feel worried about remote learning, curriculum expectations and implementations. However, for Social Studies teachers worrying too much can be troublesome and can interfere their ability to function calmly, efficiently and effectively in their daily lives in school and at home. Time is a moment that its existence must take advantage of, time can tire for those who use it, and time cannot be replaced because time is running and rolling Management Study Guide, 2021). Managing time or making effective use of time requires techniques and good planning behaviors. Time management means those behaviors that aim at achieving an effective use of time while performing certain goal-directed activities (Klapproth, et al., 2020 and Hallinger, & Heck, 2016). Indicator 1, …I fail to manage destructions and interruptions in workflow obtained a weighted mean of 2.75 rank 2nd. The Social Studies teachers sometimes felt distracted by numerous forces, events and activities (e.g., social media, internet, phone, colleagues, new normal in education set up, etc.). According to Ilhamdaniah & Megayanti (2020), numerous individuals spends much of their time unnecessarily on overly lengthy and needless meetings; unexpected and unannounced ‘visitors’; long telephone conversations and the like. For Klapproth, et al. (2020), in order to manage time well it is not enough to organize themselves and their working time, as well as minimize the unnecessary interruptions in the work by their colleagues. The overall weighted mean for the perceived occurrence of unstable transition challenges in time management at work during the COVID19 pandemic is 2.65 interpreted as Sometimes. 2.3. Deficient Strategic Time Management Table 5: Occurrence of Deficient Strategic Time Management Challenges at Work during the COVID19 Pandemic Deficient Strategic Time Management I encounter challenges/difficulties in management of my time when: Weighted Mean Qualitative Rating Ran k 1. … I do not have a clear vision, direction of where I’m heading 2.41 Seldom 6 2. … I do not think strategically and do not set short-term goals 2.35 Seldom 7 3. … I always strive towards excellence and perfection 2.88 Sometimes 1 82 UIJRT | United International Journal for Research & Technology | Volume 03, Issue 03, 2022 | ISSN: 2582-6832 All rights are reserved by UIJRT.COM. 4. … I’m not doing what I’m supposed to do or procrastination 2.52 Sometimes 3 5. … I lack regular time management review 2.50 Seldom 4.5 6. … I do not keep or implement tracking of my own time 2.50 Seldom 4.5 7. … I skip breaks when doing urgent tasks and low priority ones 2.83 Sometimes 2 Overall Weighted Mean 2.57 Sometimes Table 5 shows the perceived occurrence of deficient strategic time management challenges in time management at work during the COVID19 pandemic. Indicator 3, I always strive towards excellence and perfection obtained a weighted mean of 2.88 rank 1st. The Social Studies teachers of the present study sometimes feel that they are extremely good striving for excellence in their respective works/tasks and can really motivate themselves to push more. They viewed themselves as a one who contributes positively to the learning environment by providing exceptional energy, keen interest and extraordinary strengths and experts in terms of subject matter, pedagogy, communication, mentoring and assessing. Perfectionism is often seen as a positive trait that increases the chances for success, but it can also lead to self-defeating thoughts or behaviors that make it harder to achieve goals. According to Quezada, et al. (2020), being sort of perfectionism can lead to numerous “detrimental” work and non-work outcomes that including higher levels of burnout, stress, workaholism, anxiety, depression other mental health issues. The insistence on perfectionism, as desirable as it may seem, is basically counterproductive (Pithers & Soden, 2016). Exaggerated ‘insistence on perfectionism’, although in the fourth place as a ‘time stealer’ on all levels of management, is a dangerous disease from which some managers suffer (Management Study Guide, 2021). Indicator 7, … I skip breaks when doing urgent tasks and low priority ones obtained a weighted mean of 2.83 rank 2nd. Huge workload, deadlines, urgent report are some of the most reasons why Social Studies teachers do not take a break. Social Studies teacher’s states that sometimes in order to stay sharp and focused, it is very important to take a break despite all those urgent matters. Taking regular breaks gives Social Studies time to recharge, refresh and get rest. After a break, they are more ready and motivated. They back to work with more energy and lively. Develop the habit of doing the right thing at the right time. Work done at the wrong time is not of much use (Toquero, 2020 and Douglas, Bore & Munro, 2016). Furthermore, Toquero (2020) and O’Connell (2014) suggests that the balance between sleep, rest, break, exercise, and appropriate diet alongside an increase in “downtime” would lead to a decrease in illness, therefore suggesting the link between time management and physical health. The overall weighted mean for the perceived occurrence of deficient strategic time management challenges in time management at work during the COVID19 pandemic is 2.57 interpreted as sometimes. 3. Analysis of Variance on the Difference in the Perceived Time Management Practices at Work during the Pandemic Table 6: Difference in the Perceived Time Management Practices at Work during the Pandemic Source of Variation Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Interpretation Between Groups 0.245 1 0.245 6.517 0.011 Ho is Rejected Significant Within Groups 8.633 230 0.038 Total 8.878 231 Table 6 shows that the significant values for the perceived difference in the Time Management Practices at Work during the Pandemic is (0.011) is higher than (0.05) alpha level of significance. Therefore, reject the hypothesis. There is significant difference on the perceived time management practices at work among Social Studies teachers during the pandemic. Attributed to this result could be the dissimilarity of Social Studies teachers’ ability, adaptation, knowledge and understanding as regard to their time management practices at work during the pandemic. Time management among Social Studies teachers is a strategy of planning and controlling the amount of time spend on specific tasks in order to work more efficiently. Some of the most important time management skills includes organization, prioritization, communication and delegation (Anger & Plünnecke, 2020). Having a powerful time management behavior and skills will eventually lead Social Studies teachers to accomplishing ultimate goals (Bubb & Jones, 2020). Develop the habit of doing the right thing at the right time. Tasks which are most important should be done earlier (Grissom, 2020). Work done at the wrong time is not of much use. 83 UIJRT | United International Journal for Research & Technology | Volume 03, Issue 03, 2022 | ISSN: 2582-6832 All rights are reserved by UIJRT.COM. Complete a day on something which can be done in an hour or so. Time management skills are important because they help you structure your work in a way that allows you to accomplish goals (Grissom, 2020). 4. Analysis of Variance on the Difference in the Perceived Occurrence of Challenges in Time Management at Work during the Pandemic Table 7: Difference in the Perceived Occurrence of Challenges in Time Management at Work during the Pandemic Source of Variation Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Interpretation Between Groups 0.728 2 0.364 3.214 0.041 Ho is Rejected Significant Within Groups 39.083 345 0.113 Total 39.811 347 Table 7 shows that the significant values for the perceived occurrence of challenges in time management at work during the pandemic is (0.041) is lower than (0.05) alpha level of significance. Therefore, reject the hypothesis. There is significant difference on the perceived occurrence of challenges in time management at work among Social Studies teachers during the pandemic among the respondents. Attributed to this result could be the varied conditions, experiences, observations and situations as regard to the occurred challenges in time management at work during the pandemic by Social Studies teachers. Social Studies teachers requires excellent time management in order to cope up with the enormous challenges at work during pandemic. Such daily works include the need to balance the long-term goals of the classroom, the immediate educational needs of the students and the large volume of paperwork. According to Grissom (2020) with effective time management, Social Studies teachers increase their productivity to perform their task and duties in school, cater the needs of students and provide quality education as an ultimate goal. CONCLUSIONS Based on the findings, the researchers concluded that: 1. The Social Studies teacher respondents strongly agreed on the appropriate time management behavior at work during the pandemic. 2. The Social Studies teacher respondents strongly agreed on the appropriate time management skills at work during the pandemic. 3. The teacher respondents perceived that challenges sometimes occurred in time management at work during the COVID19 pandemic 4. There is significant difference on the perception of the respondents on the time management practices at work during the pandemic. 5. There is significant difference on the perception of the respondents on the occurrence of challenges in time management at work during the pandemic. RECOMMENDATIONS In the light of the foregoing conclusions of the study, the following recommendations were advanced: 1. The Social Studies teachers may use daily planner to record important tasks at school and at home as well as ranking priorities from most to least important. 2. 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