Towards a New Age Graphic Design Textbook in Graphic Design for Class XII First Edition April 2011 Chaitra 1933 PD 5T BS © National Council of Educational Research and Training, 2011 ` ??.?? Printed on 80 GSM paper with NCERT watermark Published at the Publication Department by the Secretary, National Council of Edu- cational Research and Training, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi 110 016 and printed at ......................................... ...................... ? ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publisher. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise disposed of without the publisher’s consent, in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published. The correct price of this publication is the price printed on this page, Any revised price indicated by a rubber stamp or by a sticker or by any other means is incorrect and should be unacceptable. Publication Team Head, Publication : Neerja Shukla Department Chief Production : Shiv Kumar Officer Chief Editor : Shveta Uppal Chief Business : Gautam Ganguly Manager Assistant Editor : Bijnan Sutar Production Assistant : ? Cover and Layout G.V. Sreekumar, Vijaybahu Joshi, Deepak Arora OFFICES OF THE PUBLICATION DEPARTMENT, NCERT NCERT Campus Sri Aurobindo Marg New Delhi 110 016 Phone : 011-26562708 108, 100 Feet Road Hosdakere Halli Extension Banashankari III Stage Bangalore 560 085 Phone : 080-26725740 Navjivan Trust Building P.O.Navjivan Ahmedabad 380 014 Phone : 079-27541446 CWC Campus Opp. Dhankal Bus Stop Panihati Kolkata 700 114 Phone : 033-25530454 CWC Complex Maligaon Guwahati 781 021 Phone : 0361-2674869 ISBN- 978-93-5007-159-5 Foreword The National Curriculum Framework (NCF)–2005, recommends that children’s life at school must be linked to their life outside the school. This principle marks a departure from the legacy of bookish learning which continues to shape our system and causes a gap between the school, home and community. The syllabi and textbooks developed on the basis of NCF signify an attempt to implement this idea. They also attempt to discourage rote learning and the maintenance of sharp boundaries between different subject areas. We hope these measures will take us significantly further in the direction of a child-centred system of education outlined in the National Policy on Education–1986. One of the key recommendation of the NCF is to increase the number of options available at the senior secondary level. Following this recommendation, National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has decided to introduce certain new areas highlighted in the NCF for their potential for encouraging creativity and interdisciplinary understanding. The present textbook attempts to provide a new pedagogic approach to the specialised study of Graphic Design. This approach focuses on combining background knowledge with practical experience. This initiative can succeed only if school principals, parents and teachers recognise that given space, time and freedom, children generate new knowledge by engaging with the information passed on to them by adults. Treating the prescribed textbook as the sole basis of examination is one of the key reasons why other resources and sites of learning are ignored. Inculcating creativity and initiative is possible if we perceive and treat children as participants in learning, not as receivers of a fixed body of knowledge. These aims imply considerable change in school routines and mode of functioning. Flexibility in the daily time-table is as necessary as rigour in implementing the annual calender so that the required number of teaching days is actually devoted to teaching. The methods used for teaching and evaluation will also determine how effective this textbook proves for making children’s life at school a happy experience, rather than a source of stress or boredom. Syllabus designers have tried to address the problem of curricular burden by restructuring and reorienting knowledge at different stages with greater consideration for child psychology and the time available for teaching. The textbook attempts to enhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering, discussion in small groups, and activities requiring hands on experience. iv PreFace The field of graphic design and the role of a graphic designer in the contemporary society are constantly changing. Graphic design today has become a specialised activity. Now-a-days we discuss graphic design within the realm of cultural, social, technological and economic context where a graphic designer is a conscious agent who shapes up the environment: natural, industrial, socio-cultural, technological as well as individual. Graphic design has become inseparable part of our life. Last year, the graphic design textbook for standard XI, tried to introduce basic concepts and definitions of design, its historical context with special reference to indigenous graphic culture and heritage of India. It also provided broad outline of the evolution of graphic design in general. Overall approach was to give broad and holistic introduction to various aspects of graphic design. In the process, students develop visual sensitivity and new awareness about the surrounding. Graphic design textbook for standard XII goes one step ahead and tries to provide a more comprehensive as well as detailed view of the field of graphic design. Apart from introducing few more design concepts in more details, it also attempts to familiarise students with applications of graphic design in real life situations and industry. New-age technologies are shaping-up the field of graphic design tremendously. Graphic design is continuously evolving to adapt to these technological demands. Therefore, in this book a special emphasis is given on digital media technologies and its role in the graphic design profession. Few chapters on state-of-the-art technology related topics relevant to graphic design have been included. Emerging (IT) Information Technology fields have become a boon for graphic designers. Newly emerging areas of IT industry require graphic designers as specialists to work on the tasks related to Interaction Design, Information Architecture, Experience Design, Retail Design, Internet and Web-design, Multimedia, Mobiles and Hand-held devices. Today, graphic design is asserting itself with new vigour and new strength by adapting to these technological developments. Media industry including advertising is still a thrust area for graphic design. More and more graphic designers are contributing to media industry today. There is not a single field of media industry that remains untouched by Design. Graphic designers are working in the areas of animation, film-making, television, cinema, print-media and outdoor advertising or ‘Out of Home’ (OoH), and so on in various capacities. They are working as graphic designers, visualisers, illustrators, and creative consultants. Although graphic design is becoming more and more technology oriented, it cannot replace the basic visual vi TexTbook develoPmenT commiTTee Chief Advisor Krishan Ahuja, Associate Professor (Retd.) College of Art, Delhi Members Chakradhar Saswade, Associate Senior Designer, Faculty of Communication Design, National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad G. V. Sreekumar, Associate Professor, Industrial Design Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Malti A. Gaekwad, Senior Lecturer, Department of Applied Arts, Faculty of Fine Arts, MS University of Baroda, Vadodara Sujay Mukherjee, Faculty Member, Wigan and Leigh, Kolkata Vinod Vidwans, Professor, FLAME School of Management, Pune Member Coordinator Jyotsna Tiwari, Associate Professor Department of Education in Arts and Aesthetics NCERT, New Delhi Acknowledgment Acknowledgment Foreword iii Preface v UniT – i Design Practices anD Processes 1-30 Chapter-1 2 role of Design in society Chapter-2 14 graPhic Design Processes UniT – ii PrinciPles anD elements of Design 31-88 Chapter-3 32 sketching anD Drawing Chapter-4 44 colour Chapter-5 60 funDamentals of Visual comPosition Chapter-6 68 tyPograPhy Chapter-7 80 PrinciPles of layout Design UniT – iii meDia anD Design 89-153 Chapter-8 90 Digital imaging anD Printing Chapter-9 96 aDVertising Design Chapter-10 108 camPaign Design Chapter-11 122 integrateD methoDs of aDVertising Chapter-12 134 graPhic Design for interactiVe meDia glossary 154-160 conTenTs Design is a cultural, social and economic phenomenon where a designer has multiple roles to play. Looking at versatile functions of design and its impact and implications, a graphic designer can contribute significantly to contemporary design issues. Graphic designer should always think about the larger concerns of society because graphics and visual images have tremendous impact on the society. After liberalisation of economy in India, a new design philosophy has emerged. It proclaims that the designs are manufactured through signs, symbols, metaphors, graphics and visual imagery. It is evident through the new wave of television advertisements, serials, as well as magazines and changed philosophy of newspapers. It is augmented by new tools and technologies that are highly effective and user-friendly. Therefore, now it is even more important that a graphic designer asserts herself in taking up the challenges of this new philosophy. The first chapter in this unit discusses these issues and provides realistic understanding of the scenario. It also provides tips to address these issues and tackle them successfully. Designers face dilemma at every step. When a designer steps into the professional world he or she is puzzled about relating the design learnings with the industry practices. Such a dilemma is addressed in the second chapter on design process. Design process involves creative thinking, imagination and visualisation. However, in the industry, it also involves `not-so- creative’ activities and skills such as coordination, management, making presentations and persuasive skills. Designer needs to be aware about these tasks. Creative ideas are generated through various subtle mental processes called associative thinking. This chapter briefly discusses these processes. All the learners will be definitely benefitted by practicing these techniques of creative thinking.