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WORLDING CITIES Roy_ffirs.indd i Roy_ffirs.indd i 5/7/2011 12:44:04 PM 5/7/2011 12:44:04 PM Studies in Urban and Social Change Published The Creative Capital of Cities: Interactive Knowledge of Creation and the Urbanization Economics of Innovation Stefan Krätke Worlding Cities: Asian Experiments and the Art of Being Global Ananya Roy and Aihwa Ong (eds.) Place, Exclusion, and Mortgage Markets Manuel B. Aalbers Working Bodies: Interactive Service Employment and Workplace Identities Linda McDowell Networked Disease: Emerging Infections in the Global City S. Harris Ali and Roger Keil (eds.) Eurostars and Eurocities: Free Movement and Mobility in an Integrating Europe Adrian Favell Urban China in Transition John R. Logan (ed.) Getting Into Local Power: The Politics of Ethnic Minorities in British and French Cities Romain Garbaye Cities of Europe Yuri Kazepov (ed.) Cities, War, and Terrorism Stephen Graham (ed.) Cities and Visitors: Regulating Tourists, Markets, and City Space Lily M. Hoffman, Susan S. Fainstein, and Dennis R. Judd (eds.) Understanding the City: Contemporary and Future Perspectives John Eade and Christopher Mele (eds.) The New Chinese City: Globalization and Market Reform John R. Logan (ed.) Cinema and the City: Film and Urban Societies in a Global Context Mark Shiel and Tony Fitzmaurice (eds.) The Social Control of Cities? A Comparative Perspective Sophie Body-Gendrot Globalizing Cities: A New Spatial Order? Peter Marcuse and Ronald van Kempen (eds.) Contemporary Urban Japan: A Sociology of Consumption John Clammer Capital Culture: Gender at Work in the City Linda McDowell Cities after Socialism: Urban and Regional Change and Conflict in Post-Socialist Societies Gregory Andrusz, Michael Harloe and Ivan Szelenyi (eds.) The People’s Home? Social Rented Housing in Europe and America Michael Harloe Post-Fordism Ash Amin (ed.) The Resources of Poverty: Women and Survival in a Mexican City* Mercedes Gonzalez de la Rocha Free Markets and Food Riots John Walton and David Seddon Fragmented Societies* Enzo Mingione Urban Poverty and the Underclass: A Reader* Enzo Mingione Forthcoming Locating Neoliberalism in East Asia: Neoliberalizing Spaces in Developmental States Bae-Gyoon Park, Richard Child Hill and Asato Saito (eds.) Subprime Cities: The Political Economy of Mortgage Markets Manuel B. Aalbers (ed.) Globalising European Urban Bourgeoisies?: Rooted Middle Classes and Partial Exit in Paris, Lyon, Madrid and Milan Alberta Andreotti, Patrick Le Galès and Francisco Javier Moreno-Fuentes Paradoxes Of Segregation: Urban Migration In Europe Sonia Arbaci From Shack to House to Fortress Mariana Cavalcanti Iron Curtains: Gates, Suburbs and Privatization of Space in the Post-socialist City Sonia Hirt Urban Social Movements and the State Margit Mayer Fighting Gentrification Tom Slater Confronting Suburbanization: Urban Decentralization in Post-Socialist Central and Eastern Europe Kiril Stanilov and Ludek Sykora (eds.) Social Capital Formation in Immigrant Neighborhoods Min Zhou *Out of print Roy_ffirs.indd ii Roy_ffirs.indd ii 5/7/2011 12:44:05 PM 5/7/2011 12:44:05 PM WORLDING CITIES ASIAN EXPERIMENTS AND THE ART OF BEING GLOBAL Edited by Ananya Roy and Aihwa Ong A John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Publication Roy_ffirs.indd iii Roy_ffirs.indd iii 5/7/2011 12:44:05 PM 5/7/2011 12:44:05 PM This edition first published 2011 © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited Blackwell Publishing was acquired by John Wiley & Sons in February 2007. Blackwell’s publishing program has been merged with Wiley’s global Scientific, Technical, and Medical business to form Wiley-Blackwell. Registered Office John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom Editorial Offices 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UK The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services, and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at The right of Ananya Roy and Aihwa Ong to be identified as the authors of the editorial material in this work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Worlding cities : Asian experiments and the art of being global / edited by Ananya Roy and Aihwa Ong. p. cm. – (Studies in urban and social change) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4051-9277-4 (hardback) – ISBN 978-1-4051-9276-7 (paperback) 1. Urbanization–Asia. 2. Globalization–Asia. I. Roy, Ananya. II. Ong, Aihwa. HT384.A78W67 2011 307.76095–dc22 2011006751 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. This book is published in the following electronic formats: ePDFs 9781444346770; Wiley Online Library 9781444346800; ePub 9781444346787; eMobi 9781444346794 Set in 10.5/12pt Baskerville by SPi Publisher Services, Pondicherry, India 1 2011 Roy_ffirs.indd iv Roy_ffirs.indd iv 5/7/2011 12:44:05 PM 5/7/2011 12:44:05 PM Contents List of Illustrations vii Notes on Contributors viii Series Editors’ Preface xiii Preface and Acknowledgments xv Introduction Worlding Cities, or the Art of Being Global 1 Aihwa Ong Part I Modeling 27 1 Singapore as Model: Planning Innovations, Knowledge Experts 29 Chua Beng Huat 2 Urban Modeling and Contemporary Technologies of City-Building in China: The Production of Regimes of Green Urbanisms 55 Lisa Hoffman 3 Planning Privatopolis: Representation and Contestation in the Development of Urban Integrated Mega-Projects 77 Gavin Shatkin 4 Ecological Urbanization: Calculating Value in an Age of Global Climate Change 98 Shannon May Part II Inter-Referencing 127 5 Retuning a Provincialized Middle Class in Asia’s Urban Postmodern: The Case of Hong Kong 129 Helen F. Siu Roy_ftoc.indd v Roy_ftoc.indd v 5/12/2011 1:13:07 PM 5/12/2011 1:13:07 PM vi Contents 6 Cracks in the Façade: Landscapes of Hope and Desire in Dubai 160 Chad Haines 7 Asia in the Mix: Urban Form and Global Mobilities – Hong Kong, Vancouver, Dubai 182 Glen Lowry and Eugene McCann 8 Hyperbuilding: Spectacle, Speculation, and the Hyperspace of Sovereignty 205 Aihwa Ong Part III New Solidarities 227 9 Speculating on the Next World City 229 Michael Goldman 10 The Blockade of the World-Class City: Dialectical Images of Indian Urbanism 259 Ananya Roy 11 Rule by Aesthetics: World-Class City Making in Delhi 279 D. Asher Ghertner Conclusion Postcolonial Urbanism: Speed, Hysteria, Mass Dreams 307 Ananya Roy Index 336 Roy_ftoc.indd vi Roy_ftoc.indd vi 5/12/2011 1:13:07 PM 5/12/2011 1:13:07 PM List of Illustrations Figures 4.1 The entrance to the “sustainable development model village” 101 4.2 Maize stalks stacked as winter feed 116 5.1 Hong Kong white-collar workers during lunchtime 138 5.2 Hong Kong’s middle class marched for democratic reforms 141 5.3 The Bank of China building in Hong Kong 142 7.1 Concord Pacific Place, 2009 183 7.2 Emaar’s Marina Promenade development, 2009 184 7.3 Henry Tsang, Welcome to the Land of Light (detail) 186 8.1 The CCTV tower, Beijing 214 8.2 The cantilever joining the CCTV towers 217 8.3 A view of the CCTV figure poised next to an adjacent tower 223 9.1 Water worlds 228 9.2 The new Bangalore has grown by threefold since 2007 242 9.3 The writing on the wall 249 10.1 Standing still, 2000–2003 275 11.1 An artistic rendering of the DLF Emporio 280 11.2 “Our future isn’t here,” February 2007 293 11.3 “It is a proper house,” February 2007 294 11.4 “It’s like a dream for them,” November 2007 297 11.5 “We hope to live like that one day,” November 2007 298 12.1 Photographing the city, Lianhua Mountain, Shenzhen, 2010 317 12.2 Cingapura, a slum redevelopment project in São Paulo, Brazil, 2009 332 Table 4.1 The organizational structure of the China–US Center for Sustainable Development, and its implementation networks for the development of Huangbaiyu 105 Roy_fbetw.indd vii Roy_fbetw.indd vii 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM Notes on Contributors Chua Beng Huat is currently Provost Professor and Head, Department of Sociology, and Cultural Studies in Asia Research Cluster Leader at the Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore. He is founding co-executive editor of the journal Inter-Asia Cultural Studies. His most recent publications are Life is Not Complete without Shopping and edited Elections as Popular Culture in Asia. His previous books include Public Housing and Political Legitimacy: stakeholding in Singapore and Communitarian Ideology and Democracy in Singapore. D. Asher Ghertner is a Lecturer in Human Geography in the Department of Geography and Environment at the London School of Economics. He recently completed his PhD in the Energy and Resources Group at the University of California, Berkeley, where he was trained in urban geography, political ecology, and development studies. His research explores urban informality and governance, aesthetic politics, and the epistemology of rule. He is currently revising his dissertation into a book, tentatively titled Rule by Aesthetics. Based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork and legal research in Delhi, the book will examine how slum demolitions are discursively justified and given meaning, legally enacted, and experienced by slum residents. His recent articles have appeared in Economy and Society and Economic and Political Weekly. Michael Goldman is a McKnight Presidential Fellow and Professor of Sociology and Global Studies at the University of Minnesota, in Minneapolis, USA. His latest book, based on a decade-long ethnography of the World Bank, is entitled Imperial Nature: the World Bank and struggles for social justice in the age of globalization (Yale University Press, 2005; Orient Longman India, 2006; Kyoto University Press, 2008 [in Japanese]). He is currently working on a project funded by the American Institute for Indian Studies, “Bangalore: The Making of a World City,” focusing on the transformations of govern- ment and citizenship taking place under liberalization. Roy_fbetw.indd viii Roy_fbetw.indd viii 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM Notes on Contributors ix Chad Haines is currently on the Religious Studies faculty and is a researcher with the Center for the Study of Religion and Conflict at Arizona State University. Previously, he was a faculty member in Anthropology at American University in Cairo and taught at Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is the author of Nation, Territory, and Globalization in Pakistan: a view from the margins (Routledge, 2011), as well as numerous articles on northern Pakistan. He is currently working on a new manuscript, Being Muslim, Being Global: Dubai, Islamabad, and Cairo. Lisa Hoffman was trained as a cultural anthropologist and is an Associate Professor in Urban Studies at University of Washington Tacoma. Her work has examined new techniques of governing, subject formation, and questions of neoliberalism in contemporary China. She has been particularly interested in the rise of professionalism and the links between “human capital” development and urban transformation, focusing on Dalian, a major port city in the northeast. Her recent book, titled Patriotic Professionalism: talent in the global Chinese city, examines the rise of a professional middle class in urban China as the country has moved from the planned system and adopted socialist market practices. The book argues that young college graduates who find jobs on their own rather than receive assignments from the state express and embody “patriotic professionalism.” This social form combines individualized career planning and calculative choice with an ethic of state- strengthening and love for the nation, challenging more standard analyses of neoliberalism, urban change, and subjectivity. Her more recent work has examined governmental rationalities of environmental city-building in China and sustainability as a governmental problem. Other publications include “Autonomous choices and patriotic professionalism: on governmentality in late-socialist China,” Economy and Society 2006, 34(4); and “Enterprising cities and citizens: the re-figuring of urban spaces and the making of post-Mao professionals,” Provincial China, 2003, 8(1). Glen Lowry is Associate Professor of Cultural & Critical Studies, Faculty of Community & Culture, at Emily Carr University of Art + Design. He is a specialist in contemporary culture and poetics, and has published articles on contemporary Canadian literature, photography, film, and television. His recent work looks at practice-based (creative-critical) collaborations between artists and academics in the context of global urbanization. A senior research in Emily Carr’s Social and Interactive Media (SIM) Research Centre (funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada) and Chair of Online Learning, Lowry’s work is also engaged with building new media platforms capable of connecting scholars, artists, and audiences across cultural and geographic distances. Current projects include Maraya, a large- scale, international public art initiative focused on urban waterfront sites in Roy_fbetw.indd ix Roy_fbetw.indd ix 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM x Notes on Contributors Vancouver and Dubai, and linking artist, writers, and academics in Canada and the UAE. With Ashok Mathur, he has recently completed a qualitative study of the Outcomes and Impacts of Canada’s Social Sciences and Humanities Research/Creations in Fine Arts grants pilot program. Since 2002, Lowry has edited West Coast Line. In 2009, he published Pacific Avenue, a book of poems. Shannon May is a PhD candidate in the Department of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. She has conducted fieldwork throughout China and in sub-Saharan Africa. Her work engages anthropo- logical problems of governance, development, citizenship, community, and political ecology as constituted in everyday practice. She is currently writing her dissertation on the convergence of ecological and market rationalities in a project to “modernize” rural China, titled Practices of Ecological Citizenship: global dreams for a Chinese village. Eugene McCann is Associate Professor, Department of Geography, at Simon Fraser University. He is an urban geographer with interests in urban politics, policy-making, and the relationships between urbanization and globalization. His current research explores how cities act globally through inter-urban policy mobilities – the processes of teaching, learning, and trans- ferring policy knowledge among cities. He is co-editor, with Kevin Ward, of Mobile Urbanism: cities & policy-making in the global age, published by the University of Minnesota Press in Spring 2011, and is working on a co-edited volume, Cities & Social Change, with Ronan Paddison, for SAGE Publications, and a co-authored text, Urban Geography: a critical introduction, with Andy Jonas and Mary Thomas, for Wiley-Blackwell. He serves on the editorial boards of the journals Urban Geography and Geography Compass, and has co-edited special editions of the Journal of Urban Affairs and the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. His work has appeared in these and other top international journals, including Antipode, Environment and Planning A, Geoforum, Professional Geographer, Social & Cultural Geography, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, and Urban Studies. Aihwa Ong is Professor of Socio-Cultural Anthropology and Southeast Asian Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Her research interests focus on global technologies, modes of governing, techno-scientific assem- blages, and citizenship in particular Asian contexts of emergence. She is the author of the now classic Spirits of Resistance and Capitalist Discipline: factory women in Malaysia (1987); Flexible Citizenship: the cultural logics of transnationality (1999); Buddha is Hiding: refugees, citizenship, the new America (2003); and Neoliberalism as Exception: mutations in citizenship and sovereignty (2006). She also Roy_fbetw.indd x Roy_fbetw.indd x 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM Notes on Contributors xi co-edited Global Assemblages: technology, politics, and ethics as anthropological problems (2005); and Privatizing China: socialism from afar (2008). Her latest collection is Asian Biotech: ethics and communities of fate. Ong’s writings have been translated into German, Italian, Portuguese, French, and Chinese. Currently, Ong is the president-elect of the Society for East Asian Anthropology. Ananya Roy is Professor of City and Regional Planning at the University of California, Berkeley. She also serves as Co-Director of the Global Metropolitan Studies Center. Roy is the author of City Requiem, Calcutta: gender and the politics of poverty (University of Minnesota Press, 2003) and co-editor of Urban Informality: transnational perspectives from the Middle East, South Asia, and Latin America (Lexington Books, 2004). Her most recent book is titled Poverty Capital: microfinance and the making of development (Routledge, 2010). Roy’s essays have focused on urban modernity, liberal, and post-liberal paradigms of planning, questions of praxis in the time of empire, and new geographies of urban theory. Gavin Shatkin is Associate Professor of Urban Planning in the Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning at the University of Ann Arbor. His research focuses on urban inequality, community organizing, and collective action around issues of shelter and infrastructure delivery in developing countries, and the impacts of globalization on cities in develop- ing countries. His recent articles have appeared in Environment and Planning A, Cities, Urban Studies, and other leading urban studies and planning journals. His book Collective Action and Urban Poverty Alleviation: community organizations and the struggle for shelter in Manila was published by Ashgate Publishers in 2007. Helen F. Siu is Professor of Anthropology at Yale University. Since the 1970s, she has conducted historical and ethnographic fieldwork in South China, examining socialist transformations and the reach of the state, the revival of market towns, rituals, marriage practices, community festivals, and the reworking of the rural–urban divide in the post-reform era. Since 1997, she has worked on the “sinking and shrinking” generation of Hong Kongers who use urban space and global charisma to engage with China. Her publications and co-edited volumes include Mao’s Harvest: voices of China’s new generation (Oxford University Press, 1983); Furrows: peasants, intellectuals, and the state (Stanford University Press, 1990); Down to Earth: the territorial bond in South China (Stanford University Press, 1995); Agents and Victims in South China: accomplices in rural revolution (Yale University Press, 1989); Empire at the Margins: culture, ethnicity and frontier in early modern China (University of California Press, 2006); SARS: reception and interpretation in three Chinese Cities (Routledge, 2007); and Hong Kong Mobile: making a global population (Hong Kong University Press, Roy_fbetw.indd xi Roy_fbetw.indd xi 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM xii Notes on Contributors 2008). In 2001, she founded the Hong Kong Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences. The Institute, hosted by the University of Hong Kong, promotes creative, interdisciplinary research that allows scholars in North America, Europe, China, and Hong Kong to connect. In the next five years, the Institute will focus on research training stressing inter-Asian connectivity in historical and contemporary terms. Roy_fbetw.indd xii Roy_fbetw.indd xii 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM 5/7/2011 3:56:49 PM Series Editors’ Preface The Wiley-Blackwell Studies in Urban and Social Change series is published in association with the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. It aims to advance theoretical debates and empirical analyses stimulated by changes in the fortunes of cities and regions across the world. Among topics taken up in past volumes and welcomed for future submissions are: ● Connections between economic restructuring and urban change ● Urban divisions, difference, and diversity ● Convergence and divergence among regions of east and west, north, and south ● Urban and environmental movements ● International migration and capital flows ● Trends in urban political economy ● Patterns of urban-based consumption The series is explicitly interdisciplinary; the editors judge books by their contribution to intellectual solutions rather than according to disciplinary origin. Proposals may be submitted to members of the series Editorial Committee, and further information about the series can be found at Jenny Robinson Neil Brenner Matthew Gandy Patrick Le Galès Chris Pickvance Ananya Roy Roy_fspre.indd xiii Roy_fspre.indd xiii 4/29/2011 12:35:30 AM 4/29/2011 12:35:30 AM Preface and Acknowledgments This book grew out of our particular interests in the field of global metropolitan studies. It has also emerged from our shared sense that dominant conceptual frameworks and methodologies in this field do not capture the diversity of urban dreams, projects, and practices that are constitutive of cities in emerging world regions. We therefore seek to articulate a new ethnographic turn in global metropolitan studies. For us, such an orientation hinges on the idea of “worlding.” We see the worlding city as a milieu of intervention, a source of ambitious visions, and of speculative experiments that have different possibilities of success and fail- ure. We hold that such experiments cannot be conceptually reduced to instantiations of universal logics of capitalism or postcolonialism. They must be understood as worlding practices, those that pursue world recog- nition in the midst of inter-city rivalry and globalized contingency. We therefore focus on the urban as a milieu that is in constant formation, one shaped by the multitudinous ongoing activities that by wedding dream and technique, form the art of being global. Inherently unstable, inevita- bly subject to intense contestation, and always incomplete, worlding is the art of being global. But also at stake in this book is how cities are worlded in geographies of knowledge. By insisting upon a shift away from the concepts of world cities and world systems to that of worlding practices, we seek to intervene in the ways in which global metropolitan studies “worlds” Asia. Impossibly heterogeneous, the idea of Asia functions in this book as much more than a geo-political location. While massive urban problems prevail in the region, “Asia” is increasingly invoked as the testing ground for successful models of economic growth, rational planning, and ecological sustainability. Inter- Asian comparisons and contrasts have become common practices in many urban initiatives to attain “world-class” status. Thus, in this book, Asia is a geographic location, a space of urban innovations, as well as an emergent symbol for urban renovations that have global applicability. But also in this book we pay attention to the constant experimentation with social formations, Roy_fpref.indd xv Roy_fpref.indd xv 4/29/2011 12:32:26 AM 4/29/2011 12:32:26 AM Preface and Acknowledgments xvi to the politics of solidarity that seeks to reformulate the urban question and domesticate the dream of Asian futures. The book is organized around the themes of modeling, inter-referencing practices, and new solidarities. In somewhat unusual fashion, we have cho- sen to divide our editorial essays into an introduction and conclusion. Aihwa Ong’s opening essay introduces the book and its key concept of “worlding” as situated practice and experimentation. She makes the case for viewing the city as a problem-space for which a range of solutions are created out of disparate local and circulating elements. Ananya Roy’s concluding essay returns to the theme of “worlding,” but examines how cities of the global South have been “worlded” in the discourses and imaginaries of metropoli- tan studies. Building on Ong’s critique of urban political economy and postcolonial analysis, Roy seeks to shift the terrain of the political away from the standard icons of global capital and subaltern agency to the “worlding city” as both a site of emergence and as a mass dream. Together, the two editorial essays highlight different theoretical approaches to the common question of the “worlding city.” We hope that such theoretical multiplicity makes visible the productive nature of the concept of “worlding” and the significance of locating the study of “worlding cities” in the context of inter- Asian urbanism. We owe considerable thanks to the scholars who have contributed essays to this edited volume. It is their work that has led us to the conceptual frameworks that anchor this book. Hailing from different fields and generations, they present new research on the social, political, material, and symbolic interconnections that are proliferating between different Asian metropolises. Their work has challenged us as editors to address methodo- logical approaches to global metropolitan studies in an era of Asian emergence. It has led us to be attentive to diverse conceptual and research questions and to thereby provide an open-ended account of experiments and possibilities, rather than promote a single unifying framework. This volume emerged from an interdisciplinary workshop we organized for the “Inter-Asian Connections” conference that was convened by the Social Science Research Council in February 2008. We had the opportunity to hold a two-day workshop, quite appropriately located at a site that features prominently in this book: Dubai. We thank the SSRC for both the initial inspiration for this endeavor and for its generous funding of our workshop. At the forum, Michael M. Fischer and Abdoumaliq Simone made astute comments that added to our lively exchange on contemporary metropolitan experiences in the Asian region. We are pleased to be a part of Wiley-Blackwell’s Studies in Urban and Social Change series. We are grateful to two editors-in-chief of the series, Neil Brenner and Jennifer Robinson, for their interest in our project. The various chapters of the book have benefited from extensive comments provided by Roy_fpref.indd xvi Roy_fpref.indd xvi 4/29/2011 12:32:26 AM 4/29/2011 12:32:26 AM